CRE Form 2 Topic by Topic Revision Questions and Answers


Lesson one:

  1. The prophecy of Jeremiah about the Messiahe) He shall ensure Judah/Israel is safe and lives in peace
  2. f) He shall be called the lord our righteousness
  3. Meaning of Messiah mean?

Messiah is a Hebrew word ‘Meshiach’ which means ‘the anointed one’. It is equivalent to ‘Christ’, a Greek word, which also means the ‘Anointed one’. A Messiah is therefore someone called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him in a special way.

In the Old Testament, the Priests and Kings were the only people who were anointed. When a person is anointed oil is poured on them. The anointed person was set aside from the rest of the people in order to serve God and His people. Examples of anointed people are Aaron (Priest) and King David. In addition, God himself anointed Prophets: for example, Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah, and Nathan among others.

  1. Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament

The messiah shall be a political leader, a victorious ruler, a king to lead people to a time of great power and prosperity, a king in whose reign there shall be no sorrow or injustice nor fear, a king to rule forever

  1. How Jesus Christ fulfilled the Old Testament prophetic of the messiah
  2. a) He was born from the lineage of David
  3. b) He was born of Mary, a virgin as foretold by Isaiah
  4. c) The messiah was called Immanuel (Jesus) Isaiah prophecy
  5. d) He was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy
  6. e) He was referred to as “son of David” – Nathan/Jeremiah/s prophesies
  7. f) He suffered – suffering servant prophecy by Isaiah
  8. Prophets in the Old Testament who prophesied about the expected Messiah Isaiah, Nathan, Jeremiah, Micah and psalmist prophecy.


Qn 1. The qualities of john as described by angel Gabriel

  1. He would be a prophet of god
  2. He would prepare the way for the messiah
  3. He would bring joy to Zachariah and others
  4. He would be a Nazarite
  5. He would call people to repentance

Qn 2 why john was referred to as the second Elijah

  • Like Elijah john had also lived in the wilderness
  • John was also filled with the Holy Spirit and proclaimed god’s message to the people
  • He also met opposition from the king just like Elijah
  • He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened with death by jezebel
  • He stood firmly for the covenant way of life
  • He was a great prophet of his time
  • He led a simple life and faced many problems like hunger just like Elijah

Qn 3 what lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of john the Baptist?

  • God answers prayers however long it may take
  • Christians should not doubt God’s messages
  • We should be persistent, faithful and patient in prayers
  • Christians should be devoted to God in prayer
  • Children are a gift from God and a source of joy to their parents
  • God has a purpose for every child’s life

Qn 4 Describe the birth of john the Baptist

  • Elizabeth was very happy and so was Zachariah
  • John was circumcised after eight days in accordance with the Jewish customs
  • Elizabeth named the child john
  • Zachariah affirmed the name of their son in writing
  • They were surprised at the name because it was not in Zechariah’s lineage
  • Zechariah was now able to talk
  • He broke into a hymn called the Benedictus
  • Zechariah expressed his feelings of joy, gratitude and praise
  • Zechariah told of the mission of his son.


Qn 1 What lessons can Christians learn from the annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ?

  • God exalts the humble and rejects the proud
  • Christians should humbly accept god’s plan for their lives
  • God has a purpose for the life of every one
  • Nothing is impossible with god
  • God wanted Jesus Christ to be part of the human family for him to identify with the human race

Qn2. Describe Mary’s visit to Elizabeth

  • Mary went to visit Elizabeth after angel Gabriel told her that Elizabeth was expecting a baby
  • Mary greeted Elizabeth and the baby in the Elizabeth’s womb leapt with joy
  • The spirit also revealed that Mary was the most blessed of all women
  • Mary sang a song known as the magnificent

Qn3. identify the main ideas in the magnificent

  • Mary thanks god for
  • Being good to her
  • His goodness and love for all human beings
  • Fulfilling his promises to the people
  • Delivering the oppressed from the oppressors

Qn 4 Describe the dedication ceremony during the infancy of Jesus

  • The parents of Jesus offered the purification sacrifices according to the Law of Moses
  • Simon was moved by the Holy Spirit and took Jesus into his arm and praised God
  • Simon prophesied about the mission of Jesus
  • Prophetess Ann thanked God for sending Jesus who would bring redemption
  • The things Simon and Anne said about their child amazed the parents of Jesus.


Qn a. What is the relevance of John the Baptist teachings to Christians today?

  • Christians should not fear to condemn the evils in the society
  • Christians should commit their lives wholly to the work of God
  • Christians should accept their role with humility and preach the gospel
  • Christians should be ready to proclaim the gospel even harsh environment for the people to know God
  • Christians should share their resources with the less fortunate
  • Christians should be contended with their pay and thus not accept bribes
  • Christians should learn to be truthful in their work environment
  • Christians should pronounce the consequences of judgment to those willing to repent

Qn b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

  • To be identified as the messiah
  • To identify himself with the sinful human kind
  • To receive the Holy Spirit
  • For God to manifest the trinity
  • It was a cleansing ritual
  • To acknowledge the work of John the Baptist
  • He saw it as a way of fulfilling the Old Testament prophesies about the Messiah
  • It was his final acceptance of the work of salvation

Qn c. describe the baptism of Jesus

  • When all the people were baptized Jesus was also baptized
  • He was baptized by John the Baptist in river Jordan at a place called Bethbora
  • Jesus was praying when the heavens opened
  • The holy spirit descended from heaven upon him inform of a dove
  • A voice came from heaven saying “thou art my beloved son with thee I am well pleased

Qn d. what is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today?

  • Christians get new names that symbolizes new life in Christ
  • Christians receive the Holy Spirit who gives them guidance in their lives
  • Christians identify themselves with Jesus and the church
  • Water is symbolically used as a cleanser as it wipes away one’s sins and gives a new life
  • Christians are brought together as members of the church of Christ
  • During baptism Christians receive the Holy Spirit who guides them in their lives
  • The old self dies and becomes a new person as a Christian
  • It is the first step of being accepted into the Christian brotherhood



Qn a. describe the temptations of Jesus

  • Satan told Jesus to turn stones into bread
  • Jesus answered that man does not live on bread alone
  • Satan then took Jesus to a high place and showed him all the kingdoms of the world. Satan promised to give Jesus everything if Jesus worshipped him
  • Jesus answered that one should worship God and serve him alone
  • Hastily, satin took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple. He asked Jesus to throw himself down since

God would send his angles to ensure that he did not get hurt. Jesus answered that no one should tempt


Qn b. from the gospel of St. Luke, identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

  • In the wilderness
  • When he healed a dumb man the commanded a sign
  • Jesus was tempted to arbitrate between two brothers
  • When the rich young ruler called Jesus a good teacher
  • When he was asked whether it was right to pay taxes to Caesar
  • In the garden of Gethsemane, he was tempted to escape the cup of suffering
  • During his trial he was asked whether he was the Messiah
  • During crucifixion he was spat on but did not fight back
  • On the cross one of the thieves wanted him to deliver them
  • He was questioned by the Sadducees about resurrection

Qn c. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world

  • They should depend on Jesus
  • They should be well versed with the scripture so that they can refer to the bible
  • They should seek guidance and counseling
  • They should attend bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible
  • They should have faith or believe in God to help them during trials
  • They should avoid bad company
  • The should take part in active leisure
  • They should avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin
  • They should resist Satan

Qn d. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted

  • To give a bribe in order to get a job
  • To engage in irresponsible sexual behavior due to peer pressure
  • To steal money entrusted to them
  • To cheat in examinations
  • To take drugs/alcohol
  • To exploit those who serve under them in their places of work
  • To keep excess change from a shopkeeper or tout
  • To show off

Qn e. What lessons can Christians learn from the temptations of Jesus?

  • Since Jesus was tempted, he fully understands our difficulties
  • God does not tempt us beyond our strength
  • Through temptations we will also be tempted
  • Through temptations and trials our faith is strengthened
  • When we are tempted we should turn to the bible for guidance
  • We should seek the Holy Spirit who enabled Jesus to conquer evil


  1. Give the main teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the plain

The sermon on the plain consisted of five main parts namely:

Blessings (Lk 6: 20 – 26) and woes

These are also referred to as the beatitudes. Here, Jesus had a message for the poor, the rich, those who hunger and those who are full, those who weep and those who laugh. His concern is to show the social differences and mystery of Christian suffering. Persecution seems to be a common phenomenon for followers of Christ. The poor are those who cannot meet their basic needs and Luke depicts them as hungry and weeping.

The disciples are included in the poor because they have given up everything. But Jesus gives hope.

Jesus warns the rich against using their economic points to oppress the poor. They have an opportunity, however to belong to the Kingdom by using their riches to help the needy.

Love of Enemies: (6:27-37)

Followers of Jesus are supposed to “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who abuse you”.

Judging Others (6:37-43)

Disciples are expected to acknowledge their own shortcomings before they can condemn the faults in others. Failure to recognize one’s fault is a hindrance to becoming a member of the Kingdom of God.

Evidence to Good Discipleship

The proof of a person’s goodness is seen in his deeds. The true nature of a person cannot be hidden because what they do and say will reveal their nature.

Hearing and Doing (6: 47-49)

It is not enough for His followers to proclaim Christ as Lord. They must also do what He tells them.

Q2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to Christians today?

The teachings on blessings and woes tell us that the goal of a person should be to inherit the Kingdom of God.

Christians should love their enemies as Jesus loved them sinful as they were.

Human beings are self-centered. It is easier to see other people’s mistakes than our own Christian should examine them before passing judgment on others. By so doing we appreciate that we are all sinners who should seek forgiveness from God and we should always appreciate others however sinful they may be.

Be steadfast in faith and do well all the time.




Q2 Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7:36-8:3)

On one occasion, Jesus was invited by Simon the Pharisee to his house to eat with him.

While this is a sinful woman walked into the house weeping.

She began to wet Jesus’ feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair.

She kissed his feet and anointed them with an ointment.

When Simon saw this, he questioned Jesus’ power. If he were a prophet, He would have noticed that the woman was a sinner.

And Jesus answered him the telling him about a certain creditor who has two debtors, one owed him hundred denarii and the other fifty.

When asked Simon which of the two debtors would love the creditors more.

Simon said the one who was forgiven more.

Jesus said you have judged rightly.

Then he had not given Him even water to wash His feet.

But the woman used her tears to wet Jesus’ feet and wiped them using her hair and oiled them.

Therefore her sins, which are many, are forgiven for she loved much, one with little love receives little more.

Jesus told Simon he gave him no kiss but the woman had not stopped kissing Him.

Those at table began to ask who Jesus was who ever forgiven sins?

And He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you, go in peace.”

Q3. What lessons do Christians learn from the above story?

Christians should accept their sins and seek for forgiveness as the sinful woman did.

Faith is important for one to be forgiven. Jesus told the woman “Your faith has saved you.”

A repentant sinner is greater than a righteous man (the Jewish religious leaders).

It is not the magnitude of sin that matters but the attitude of a person towards his sins.

Shows the importance of women in the ministry of Jesus

Q4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7:11-17)

After His preaching in Capernaum, Jesus went to the city of Nain.

He found a man being carried out near the gate.

He was the only son of a widow.

When the Lord saw her, He had compassionate on her and said to her, “do not weep.’

Then He came and touched the open coffin.

And those who carried him stood still.

Jesus said, “Young man, arise.”

And he who was dead sat up and began to speak.

Jesus presented him to his mother.

Then fear came among all and they glorified God.

They said a great prophet has come among us. God has visited His people.


  1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables
  • To attract the attention of his listeners
  • To help his listeners understand better
  • To separate the serious people from the onlookers
  • To enrich his teachings
  • To avoid direct confrontation with his enemies
  • It was a common way of teaching those days
  • To teach about God’s mercy to sinners
  • To make people think critically out issues concerning God’s kingdom
  • To relate patent issues with those of the future kingdom positively

Qn 2 Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today

  • Preaching
  • Teaching
  • Being role models
  • Holding crusades
  • Organizing seminars and conferences
  • Electronic mechanisms e.g. sms and emails
  • Print media e.g. posters and magazines
  • Door to door evangelism
  • Through demonstration and role play
  • Through the mass media e.g. radios and TVs
  • Through Christian music e.g. cassettes and C.Ds

Qn 3 Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition from the Jewish leaders

  • His popularity
  • His interpretation of the Sabbath
  • His failure to observe the law of fasting
  • He associated with tax collectors
  • He claimed to be the messiah
  • He out rightly condemned them
  • Teaching with authority
  • His claims to forgive sins.


Q1 Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac – Lk 8:26-39.

After crossing the Sea of Galilee, Jesus came across a demon – possessed man in a gentile town called Gerasa.

The man had been living in the caves used for burial of the dead.

He wore no clothes.

When the man saw Jesus, he asked Him not to torment him.

When Jesus asked him what his name was; he responded that he was called “Legion” – which stands for 2000 – 6000 soldiers.

This meant that this man possessed by many demons.

Jesus had sympathy and ordered the unclean spirits to leave him.

Jesus let the evil spirits to go to the pigs, which were grazing nearby.

They then fell into the lake and drowned.

Q2. What lesson can Christian learn from the healing of the demoniac man above?

Jesus valued human life. That is why He led the evil/spirits into the pigs, which drowned into the lake and saved the man.

It shows Jesus came for all regardless of tribe. This man was a gentile.

Jesus heals the whole person – physically and spiritually.

That Jesus has power over evil spirits.

Shows that Jesus came to destroy the power of evil

It teaches that Christians have to fight the power of evil constantly. But with Jesus’ help they will overcome it.

God will never allow them to be defeated. He will come to their aid, however, much.

They should give out their material possession to save those in need. This man needed help.

They should tell their people about God as this man went to in his village etc.

Q3. What do the miracles of Jesus teach us about Him?

They show that Jesus is the Son of God.

That Jesus gets power from God.

That Jesus shares his power with His disciples.

The miracles show Jesus compassion to suffering people e.g. the raising of the widow’s son.

They also show that Jesus is Lord. He is the life and the resurrection.

That affirms that Jesus came to save man from sin.

They show that Jesus is a universal savior e.g. the Gesarone demoniac who was a gentile.

They were part of His teaching – they helped Him teach.

Through them He showed the concern for human life, physically, spiritually and mentally.


Q1. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

To preach the word of God.

To advise the leaders.

To warn evildoers against their sins.

To condemn evil.

Pray for the needy

Help the needy e.g. give them food, shelter etc.

Hold seminars/workshops where they lead people into forgiveness

Being a good example for emulation

Q2. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

By giving sadaka

By giving 1/10 of their income

They pay for their training.

Fundraisings for building theological institutions

Building their residential houses in the church compound.

Giving ‘matega’ – foodstuffs as part of sadaka during service


Q2. Describe the transfiguration of Jesus (Luke 9:28-37)

Jesus needed encouragement and reassurance that what He was about to do was the will of His Father.

Therefore He took with Him Peter, James and John and went to Mount Hermon to pray.

As He prayed, His appearance was changed and His face became dazzling white.

Two men, Elijah & Moses appeared and talked of His departure (death), which He was to accomplish in Jerusalem.

The disciples were asleep as this happened.

When they woke up, they saw glory and the two men who stood with Him.

And as the men were parting form Him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘Master, it is well that we are here, Let us make booths, one for you, one for Elijah and one for Moses.

As he said this, a cloud cursed the whole area and they were afraid.

A voice came out of the cloud saying, ‘this is my only son, my chosen, Listen to Him.’

Q3. What is the significance of the transfiguration of Jesus (Lk 9:28-37)?

A voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus was the Son of God.

It strengthened the faith of the disciples so that they would continue with His work after death.

It showed that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and God. This is seen with the appearance of Elijah and Moses.

The cloud was a symbol of God’s presence.

It was a sign that Jesus’ mission was no longer a secret. It marked the onset of His passion, which would lead to His death.

It confirmed to Jesus that He was doing the right thing and God was in support of His suffering.

It shows that faith in prayer can lead us to God’s presence.



Q1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Jesus?

Following Jesus means accepting homelessness and enduring hardship because Jesus did not have a permanent home.

Being a disciple of Jesus means self-denial and suffering.

Being ready to give e.g. to the needy

To spread Christianity and make Jesus known.

Following Jesus means being loyal to Him.

Q2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus

One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.

One is assured of eternal life.

He has the joy of winning others to the Kingdom of God through preaching.

Q3 why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

In order to help Him in the work of spreading the good news

So as to belong to the Kingdom of God and get eternal life

To witness to his work

To share with them the power of God e.g. in performing miracles.

For Company as He worked.


(Note: Not the parable of the Samaritans)

Q1. From the teaching of Jesus on the parable of the Good Samaritan, who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

One who understands the law and obeys i

One who understands that a neighbor is anybody who requires help regardless of their social status

One who uses his resources selflessly to help the needy

One who is not restricted by cultural and religious practices in responding to a needy situation

One who is compassionate, kind and generous

One who shows solidarity with the suffering, this includes identifying with the needy and being ready to experience their suffering.


Q1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

Jesus taught that prayer must be persistent, use the parable of Friend at Midnight.

Prayer should be done in a private place.

It should be genuine.

One should not be proud when praying e.g. the parable of the tax collector and the Pharisee.

One should have faith during prayer.

One should pray always/continuously.

There is no formula in prayer. One should address God as a father.

Honestly confess sin as they pray.

Qs 1 & 2 is out of topic.



Q1. Hypocrisy – In what areas were the Pharisees hypocritical?

In the washing of hands, cups and dishes which were done ceremoniously He told them to pay attention to issues of charity than external appearance.

Tithing habits – They paid this well for the support of priests but neglected justice and love for God.

He criticized them for recognition in the synagogues by taking reserved seats and their desire to be noticed at market places by wearing long white robes.

He accused them of being like their ancestors who persecuted the prophets of God.


Read Lk: 11:13-34: Parable of the rich fool

Q1. From the parable of the rich fool, what can Christians learn about the use of wealth?

Material wealth should come second after God.

We should try to help the poor.

It teaches that wealth comes from God.

Wealth should not be misused e.g. in drinking, etc.

We should thank God for wealth received.

It can make Christians to forget God.

Q2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

Jesus taught the following parable about a rich man and his servant.

A rich man wanted to sack his manager. He called the manager and asked him for a full account of how the property was being managed.

The manager knew he was going to be sacked. He made friends with some of his master’s debtors so that they would take care of him if he got sacked.

One debtor who owed 100 barrels of olive oil was asked to pay 50 barrels and one who owed 1000 was asked to pay 800 barrels.

The master praised him for being wise and acting property in his moment of crisis.


What were the teachings of Jesus on forgiveness?

Jesus taught that one should forgive and forget

All sins are equal before the eyes of God.

One ought to ask for forgiveness after he has wronged.

One should forgive as many times as he is offended.

One should have faith when asking for forgiveness.


Q1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge 18: 1-8

Jesus told the Pharisees a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart.

In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor regarded man.

And there was a widow in that city which kept coming to him and wanted her right given.

For a while he refused, but afterwards he said to himself, though I neither fear God nor regard man, yet because this widow bothers me, I will allow her set her right or she will wear me out by her continual coming.

And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge says, and will he not vindicate His elect who cry to Him day and night?

Will he delays long over them, I, you, He will vindicate them speedily.


Q1: What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

Jesus said, ‘Let little children come to me because the kingdom of God belongs to such as them.

He went on to tell them that for one to enter God’s kingdom, he must humble himself like children.

This is because children are powerless, innocent and open.

Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is for those who are simple, humble, innocent and trusting like children.

Q2. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar (18:35-43)

A blind man recognized Jesus as the messiah.

The blind man asked Jesus to heal him.

He received his sight because of his faith.

He followed Jesus, giving thanks to God.

To receive salvation one needs to be bold and determined.

We should seek Christ to heal our physical and spiritual blindness.

Q3. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teaching on salvation to Christians

Christians learn that they need to repent their sins and seek forgiveness in order to receive salvation and eternal life.

They need to humble themselves like children in order to earn salvation.

They learn to obey the commandments of God so as to receive salvation.

Use their abilities to glorify God e.g. the rich man’s parable

They too learn that wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.

They learn that salvation is given to all by God.


Qn a. describe Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19: 29-30

  • After his journey from Galilee ended, Jesus approached Jerusalem passing through Bethaphage,

Bethany and the mount olives

  • He sent two of his disciples to a village to get him a donkey on which nobody had ridden
  • He gave the disciples instructions that if the owner of the donkey demanded to know why they were untying it, they were to respond, “The lord has need for it”
  • When they got the donkey, they threw their garments on it and helped Jesus to sit on it
  • As Jesus rode along, they spread their garments on the road
  • The crowds following him rejoiced and praised God for all the wonderful work Jesus had done this included: teaching, healing and feeding the hungry
  • The crowds sang, “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest”. By singing, the crowds acclaimed Jesus as king.
  • The Pharisees objected to the crowds singing and asked Jesus to silence them
  • Jesus responded that if his followers were silent, “the very stones would cry out”. Insensitive than stones not to know what was happening, that is, the Messiah has come

Qn b. What does the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about the nature of the kingdom of God?

  • Jesus was a descendant of David, prophesied Messiah and son of God
  • Jesus is a triumphant, victorious yet a humble king. A donkey is a symbol of humility and peace. So he came to establish a peaceful kingdom
  • Jesus wanted to proclaim the coming of his kingdom but not as an earthly/ military leader, thus leading them to lay their garments for him to step on. In doing this, they were acknowledging Jesus as

Jerusalem’s promised king

  • Jesus was greeted as a king the same way the kings of Israel were greeted with acclamation and joy
  • By riding on a donkey, Jesus fulfilled the prophesy of Zechariah which says, the king is coming riding on a donkey triumphant, humble and victorious
  • Christianity is not propagated through violent means but peace

Qn c. What lessons can Christians learn fro Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem?

  • Christians learn that they should be prepared to receive Jesus into their lives like the crowd which escorted him to Jerusalem
  • Christians also learn that they should emulate Jesus and be channels of peace in their communities
  • They also learn that they should expect opposition and resistance as they witness to Christ. They should not give up hope
  • Christians learn that they should be humble like Jesus in their service to others
  • Christians should thank and praise God for his intervention in their lives by sending Jesus
  • They should be bold in their witnessing to Christ like the crowds that followed Jesus to Jerusalem and

Qn d. State and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem.

  • When Jesus came close to the city of Jerusalem he wept over it saying, “If you only knew what is needed for peace! But now you cannot see it! The time will come when your enemies will surround you with barricades block you and close in on you from every side. They will completely destroy you and the people within your walls, not a single stone will they leave in its place because you did not recognize the time when God came to save you”.
  • According to Luke, all song and rejoicing stopped suddenly when Jesus was deeply distressed at the sight of Jerusalem
  • Jesus knew that Jerusalem (the city of peace) would reject his final appeal and by so doing would bring judgment down on itself. The destruction of the city is viewed as the consequence of its rejection of

Jesus. They cannot see when the true peace comes in the person of Jesus. The coming destruction is a symbol of God’s judgment on lack of trust. The tears of Jerusalem are the tears of tragedy.

  • The heart of the tragedy is that Jerusalem did not recognize the time when God came to save them
  • Now Jesus says that Jerusalem was not ready to receive him as their savior and this would lead to her ruin
  • Just like the Babylonians were God’s instruments of destruction of Jerusalem during the time of

Jeremiah, so will the Romans be instruments of destruction of Jerusalem

  • Jerusalem was completely destroyed by the Roman armies in the year A.D 70

Qn e. Explain the cleansing of the temple.

  • While in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple where he found people buying and selling
  • He drove them out and overturned their tables saying that they had turned his father’s house into a den of robbers
  • Here Luke uses this incidence to show how Jerusalem was still unprepared for the day of God’s visit
  • Jesus carried out a symbolic act by driving out those who were buying and selling in the temple
  • Jesus used the words of Jeremiah who too attacked the in his time for turning the temple into a hideout for thieves
  • According to Jesus the temple will no longer give them the sense of security because it will be destroyed
  • Although the temple will be destroyed, a new one will be built. This is the Christian community, which will be a house o prayer for all nations. The new temple will not be limited to Jesus alone but to all people
  • In short Jesus is the Messiah. He exposed the unrighteousness of public life in Jerusalem by attacking the merchants in the temple

Qn f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

  • The temple authorities had allowed a market in the court of the gentiles where the everyday money issued by the Roman government could be exchanged for the special temple coins which had to be used for paying the temple tax
  • In the same place they could also buy the animals needed for sacrifice. These animals had to be certified as acceptable
  • But both the changing of money and the certifying of animals gave ample opportunity for making exorbitant profits
  • Jesus made his protest because all this trading was hiding for the real purpose of the temple and prevented Israel from being a light to the gentiles. For this reason, the temple would be destroyed because it was no longer serving as “a house of prayer”.

Qn g. What lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

  • Christians learn that they should respect the house of God and use it appropriately
  • Christian leaders should avoid exploiting members through asking for excessive contributions
  • Christians should pay more attention to inward righteousness than external observance of rituals
  • Christians should have more courage like Jesus to condemn evil practices by leaders in the church and society
  • Christians should be exemplary with their life styles so as to win others to the kingdom
  • Finally the cleansing of the temple by Jesus provides valuable lesson to Christians who are called upon to be Christ’s ambassadors. There are many incidents where churches have been subjected to disrespect and dishonor and this discourages many people from knowing God. Christians should also avoid leadership wrangles, corruption, sexual abuse, gossip and many others that have caused churches to split

Qn h. Explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

  • In a series of conflicts in and around the temple between Jesus and the official leaders of the Jewish nation, the public ministry of Jesus came to its close
  • After the cleansing the temple, he daily dominated the temple area teaching large crowds. His popularity grew steadily and the leaders felt the threat against their own position. They could not allow this to go on but they were afraid to arrest Jesus. In the end they tried to trap him into making statements which would either get him into trouble with the Roman authorities or discredit him before the people
  • First Jesus was challenged about his authority. The Jewish religious leaders wondered whose authority

Jesus used. They wanted to know which Rabii taught him or to which Jewish religious groups he belonged to i.e. the Pharisees or the Sadducees

  • If Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah he could be accused before the Roman authorities for rebellion
  • If he refused to make his claim the crowds would soon leave him alone
  • But Jesus skillfully defeated his adversaries. He invited them to answer their own question. “Tell me, did John’s right to baptize come from God or human beings?”
  • Whatever answer they gave to Jesus’ question about John the Baptist would apply in even stronger measures to their own question about Jesus
  • But they had never supported John and they could no now admit that his right to baptize came from


  • If they did they would also have to accept Jesus whom John had announced. Neither could they say

John was a prophet for that would bring trouble from the people who held John in high self-esteem

Qn i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

  • After the question of Jesus’ authority, Jesus challenged the Jewish leaders by telling them the parable of the wicked tenants. He said that there was once a man, who planted a vineyard, let it to the tenants and then left home for a long time
  • When the time came to gather the grapes, he sent a slave to the tenants to receive from them his share of the harvest but the tenants beat the slaves and sent him back without a thing. The same treatment was given to the second and the third slave
  • The owner decided to send his own son whom they killed. He therefore decided to come by himself, killed the tenants and handed over the vineyard to other men
  • When the people heard this they said, “Surely not” but Jesus explained to them “the stone which the builders rejected as worthless turned out to be the most important of all. And every one who falls on the stone will be cut to pieces and if that stone falls on someone, it will crush him to dust
  • In this parable, the vineyard represents God’s kingdom, Israel. The servants are the prophets sent to Israel and they are rejected. The son here represents Jesus and the owner is God who will bring judgment on Israel
  • The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone this shows that Jesus saw himself as the rejected but most important. He makes a new foundation of Israel for both Jews and Gentiles. On hearing this, the Pharisees wanted to seize Jesus but were afraid of the people

Qn j. what is the relevance of the parable of the tenants?

  • Over the centuries the situation has not changed. Jesus is still rejected by nations and by men
  • What happened to Jesus happened as he foretold those who follow him
  • Church history reveals many examples of men rejected by political and religious leaders and by the people their time and who have later been seen as the key man in the revelation of God’s purpose
  • As Christians we should also pray for strength and guidance from God to be able to deal with rejection
  • As Christians we should not fear rejection but stand firm for the truth
  • Christians should also seek pastoral counseling from the church leaders and other Christians. When we endure persecution we may be finally proved right

Qn k. the question about paying taxes

  • The teachers of law and the chief priest, after falling to arrest Jesus bribed some spies to ask whether it was right for them to pay taxes to Caesar or not
  • The Israelites were compelled to pay taxes to the Romans who controlled them
  • Many resented this because according to them payment of taxes using coins which had some emperors image was a violation of the Jewish law which forbade the use of images
  • If Jesus would tell them to pay, the people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them
  • Many resented this because according to them people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them
  • If he told them not to pay, they would accuse him to the Roman authorities
  • Jesus knew their trick and wanted his questioners to make their own decision about the issue
  • According to him it was right for the Roman government to exert the tax payments without demeaning God’s authority
  • In other words, by having the silver coin in their possession, the Jews accepted Roman authority
  • They had a duty to pay tax to the emperor because they enjoyed the benefit of the Roman rule
  • At the same time they had a duty to be loyal to God. A person’s loyalty should not be owed to the state or Caesar

Qn l. explain the question about resurrection

  • The Sadducees raised the question concerning marriage an resurrection or life after death
  • They asked Jesus whose wife a woman would be in the resurrection when she married seven brothers who had died without bearing children
  • The question was meant or designed to make Jesus look foolish thus to shame him. This would undermine the popular support that we had prevented action against Jesus
  • In his response, Jesus made the following observations
  • He does not accept the assumption that marriage continues after resurrection
  • Quoting from exodus a book that the Sadducees accepted, Jesus confirms that there is life after death
  • The resurrection life is different from earthly life
  • It is a new existence where those who resurrect, live with God as his children in eternity

Qn m. what is eschatology?

  • The term eschatology is derived from two Greek words ’Eschatus’ and ‘Lagos’, which means end and study respectively
  • Eschatology therefore is the study of the last things such as death, judgment, and life after death and the end of the world
  • Jesus talked about the end of the world to his disciples just before he was arrested

Qn n. what will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21: 5-38?

  • Jesus taught his disciples about the end times in the temple of Jerusalem
  • In his speech, he talked about what will happen to the city of Jerusalem and the world at the end of time
  • Jerusalem was going to be destroyed because of her refusal to recognize and accept the Messiah
  • Jesus told the disciples of the signs that would accompany the end of the world
  • People come claiming to be Jesus the Messiah, the son of God
  • There will be wars between nations
  • Natural calamities like earthquakes, famines and plagues will occur
  • Strange heavenly beings will come from the sky
  • There will be disruption in the sky and in the sea
  • All nations will be in despair
  • People will faint from fear as they witness these signs
  • At the end of all these, the son of man will appear in power and glory
  • Jesus’ teaching of the end times was meant to provide encouragement to the disciples in difficult times
  • They were expected to have hope

Qn o. how do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

  • Christians should prepare for the second coming of Christ by not losing hope in the face of trials and tribulations because the kingdom of God with its promises of a new life will definitely come
  • They prepare for his second coming by leading a righteous life. They are to avoid too much feasting and drinking
  • They should prepare by being watchful through prayers so that God will give them courage and strength to stand firm in their faith
  • They should prepare by preaching the word of God to those who have not heard it
  • They should prepare by being obedient to God’s commandments
  • They should prepare by helping the needy
  • They should prepare by preaching and evangelizing and converting others



Qn a. gives the different names used in reference to the Lord’s Supper by Christians in different churches

  • The holy Eucharist
  • The mass
  • The Lord’s Table or the table of the lord
  • The Holy Communion
  • The Last Supper
  • The breaking of bread
  • The sacrament

Qn b. describe the institution of the Lord’s Supper

  • Jesus was at the last supper with his disciples the night he was betrayed
  • In the room which had been arranged by Jesus. He told his disciples how much he had longed to eat the Passover meal with them before he suffered death
  • He took a piece of bread and gave thanks to God and broke it. He gave it to them saying, “This is my body which is given for you. So do this in memory of me”
  • He took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God and said “ take this and share it among yourselves”
  • He also gave them a cup of wine after supper saying “ this cup is God’s new covenant sealed with my blood which is poured out for you

Qn c. state the Christian teachings about the Lord’s Supper

  • The Last Supper was inaugurated by Jesus
  • It’s celebration of the crucified and rise Christ
  • The Lord’s Supper is a gift from God
  • It is a sacrifice of praise and thanks giving
  • It is the church’s effective proclamation of God’s mighty works acts and promises
  • It is a sign of the unity of the church or the believers
  • It is a new paschal meal of the church. The meal, which by visible signs communicates God’s love in

Jesus Christ. It is the sacrament of Christ’s real presence

  • The bread is a symbol of the body of Christ which was crucified
  • The wine or cup is a symbol of his blood, which was shed. It is the blood of the new covenant
  • It is a fore state of Christ’s passion and of the final kingdom. It is symbolic of the heavenly banquet
  • It is central to Christian worship. (Eucharist)

Qn d. what is the meaning of the Lord’s Supper to Christians?

  • The sacramental meal communicates God’s love in Christ
  • The washing of the disciple’s feet by Jesus signifies humble service to and love for one another
  • They proclaim the lord’s death until his second coming
  • They share in the body of Christ
  • The unity of Christians is evidenced
  • The bread symbolizes the body of Jesus which was crucified on the cross for the sins of human kind and for the healing of their diseases
  • The wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus which was shed for forgiveness of sins
  • The wine also symbolizes the sealing of a new covenant
  • The partaking of the Lord’s Supper strengthens the faith of believers in that, Christ’s presence is felt and in this way they constantly keep in touch with him
  • The Lord’s Supper enhances a personal relationship between the individual believer and Christ
  • It is thanksgiving to God for everything accomplished in creation, redemption and sanctification
  • Through the Holy Communion, Christians offer themselves as a holy and living sacrifice. They rededicate and renew themselves. Those who share in the sacred meal declare their loyalty to Christ
  • The Lord’s Supper is an act of repentance. The partakers receive re-assurance of the forgiveness of sins and are assured of salvation
  • The bread and the wine which represents the body and blood of Jesus become the final sacrifice replacing all O.T sacrifices that were offered for the salvation of the human race

Qn f. Prayer on mount olives

  • After celebrating the last supper, Jesus and his disciples went to mount olives
  • He knelt down and prayed and asked his disciples to join him
  • In response, God sent an angel from heaven to encourage him
  • Jesus prayed in agony until his sweat was like drops of blood
  • This sweat which was like blood was an indication of the struggle and agony he went through to accept the will of his father
  • Though Jesus suffered agony and turmoil, he approached it with great courage and composure
  • His suffering was even greater for it involved more than physical pain. It meant bearing the sin of the world
  • So he prayed to God, his father to give him strength for his coming mission
  • When he went back to his disciples, he found them asleep a sign of moral and physical exhaustion or maybe it was an indication that they were in sorrow because Jesus had told them he was about to be crucified
  • In conclusion, we can say that Jesus expressed an inner struggle about the fulfillment of his Messianic mission. So he prayed to God to help him bear the suffering. Prayer was very important in Jesus’ ministry

Qn g. describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

  • When Jesus came down from Mt. Olives he met a multitude of people
  • Judas Iscariot appeared accompanied by a large crowd, the chief priest, elders and the temple guards who had ordered to arrest Jesus
  • Judas Iscariot came forth and kissed Jesus. This was a sign identifying Jesus as the man they were looking for. That kiss was the betrayal
  • When the disciples noticed what was happening one of them used his sword to cut off the ear of a high priest’s slave
  • In other words Jesus stopped his disciples from resisting his arrest
  • By rejecting armed assistance, Jesus was refusing the role of a political Messiah
  • Jesus was arrested and taken to the house of the chief priest Annas

Qn h. state the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

  • He lacked moral courage to stand by Jesus during his moment
  • He could have been an informer of the Jewish religious leaders
  • He was overcome by the power of evil
  • He was disappointed by Jesus’ teaching on spiritual kingdom rather than fulfilling the Jewish expectation of a political Messiah who could liberate them from the Roman rule
  • He was a mercenary motivated by greed for money
  • He had little faith in Jesus or lost his trust in Jesus Christ
  • He was not loyal to the master
  • He was a northerner who felt foreign and thus was jealous against other disciples
  • He was a zealot who believed in war rather than peace

Qn i. Describe the trial of Jesus under the following

The council of Sanhedrin

  • Jesus was brought to the Sanhedrin council early in the morning following his arrest
  • The council of elders asked him if he was the Messiah
  • Jesus responded by speaking of the son of the man coming in triumph
  • The Sanhedrin accused him of the sin of blasphemy for allegedly claiming to be the son of God
  • He was condemned to die for alleged blasphemy
  • In the Jewish law, blasphemy was punishable by death

The trial before Pilate

  • Since the Sanhedrin could not carry out the death sentence, they took Jesus to the Roman governor Pilate
  • They accused Jesus of inciting the people to revolt, forbidding payment of taxes and claiming to be a king in rebellion to Roman authority
  • They could not accuse Jesus of blasphemy. This charge would not be accepted under Roman law
  • However, by taking Jesus to Pilate, the Jewish religious leaders wanted the Roman authority to take responsibility for Jesus’ death

The trial before Herod

  • Jesus’ ministry works had mesmerized Herod. So when Pilate learned that Jesus was from Galilee, he handed him over to Herod who was the district officer of Galilee and happened to be in Jerusalem at that time
  • The trial of Jesus before Herod (only mentioned in St. Luke’s gospel) is not really a trial because King Herod only wanted to satisfy his curiosity about Jesus
  • He joined the soldiers in mocking Jesus
  • Jesus refused to answer Herod’s questions and he consequently sent Jesus back to Pilate
  • Interestingly the mockery by Herod and his soldiers as another step in the public ridicule of Jesus. It will continue as he hangs on the cross

Pilate’s judgment

  • Jesus was brought to Pilate a second time
  • Pilate reiterated that he found Jesus not guilty of any crime
  • The chief priests prevailed upon Pilate who passed a sentence of death on Jesus to die by crucifixion.

This was the punishment of high treason according to the Roman law

  • The Jewish leaders asked that Barnabas a criminal be released instead of Jesus
  • It was customary for a convicted person to be released during the Passover
  • So the Jewish leaders and not the Jewish people or Pilate were responsible for Jesus’ death
  • Jesus was killed because of the blind hatred of the Jewish leaders

Qn j. why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

  • He was afraid of a Jew revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace in his territory in accordance with the expectations of the Roman emperor. If he had released Jesus, the Jew would have caused a disturbance
  • He did not want to be disloyal to the Roman emperor after learning that Jesus had been accused of treason. Disloyalty could have resulted in losing favor with the emperor and consequently his job • He washed his hands. This means that he was absolving himself of the guilt of having Jesus crucified.

This is because he had learnt from the Jewish leaders that Jesus was the Son of God. His wife had also cautioned him about Jesus’ innocence. Pilate himself had found no evidence to convict Jesus

Qn k. Identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

  • Jesus is the king of the Jews
  • Jesus is without sin. Pilate found no guilt in Jesus and he sent him to Herod
  • Pilate gave in to their demands on the grounds of treason- Christians should refrain from giving false witness
  • Pilate was afraid of a revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace as a Roman officer. Christians learn that they should not be compromised by worldly standards
  • Christians should stand firm for the truth because the truth will always prevail
  • Christians should strive not to lose favor with God. They should desire to please God rather than man
  • Pilate washed his hands he learnt that Jesus is truly the son of God (innocent)
  • Great evil can happen when the truth is at the mercy of political pressure
  • Christians should take time before making decisions
  • Resisting the truth leaves a person without purpose or direction

Qn l. actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

  • They paid Judas Iscariot to betray him
  • They bought false witnesses to accuse him of blasphemy before Sanhedrin/ blasphemy was punishable by stoning to death
  • They hurriedly tried Jesus at night before people knew what was happening
  • They framed treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before Pilate/ treason carried a death sentence
  • They employed armed temple guards and armored soldiers to deal with those who would fight for


  • They blackmailed Pilate to have Jesus crucified
  • They organized a mob to shout for the death of Jesus and release of Barnabas
  • They crucified him dead when they got permission from Pilate

Qn m. explain the crucifixion of Jesus

  • Jesus was given the cross beam to carry to his crucifixion site
  • Simon of Cyrene helped him carry it
  • A group of women followed Jesus and wept over his plight
  • Jesus asked them to weep over themselves and their children
  • He talked about the impending destruction coming over Jerusalem
  • Jesus eventually arrived at Golgotha and was nailed on the cross
  • Two criminals were crucified on either of his sides
  • After his crucifixion, the soldiers cast lots to divide his garments. This action fulfilled psalms 22: 18,

Jesus is the righteous Messiah who suffers unjustly and is mocked by people as he cries to God

  • The soldiers, Jewish leaders and one of the thieves mocked Jesus for claiming to be the royal Messiah
  • Jesus is mocked with the challenge to save himself
  • One of the criminals crucified with Jesus usually referred to as the repentant thief acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah and admitted the justness of his own condemnation
  • Above Jesus it was written, “This is the king of Jews”
  • Jesus forgave his killers and all those who had accused him falsely. He promised one of the thieves hanging on the cross a place in paradise

Qn n. describe the death of Jesus

  • The death of Jesus was preceded by extra ordinary happenings
  • Darkness covered the land for three hours
  • The curtain in the temple tore into two
  • Jesus died after crying “father into thy hands I commit my spirit”
  • On seeing Jesus die, the Roman centurion who was present testified to Jesus’ innocence. As he recognized Jesus’ lordship
  • In his death, Jesus showed total commitment to God’s will


Qn o. the burial of Jesus

  • Joseph of Arimathea, a rich and righteous member of the Sanhedrin asked Pilate to allow him bury


  • Joseph could have been a secret disciple of Jesus
  • Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s grave fulfilled Isaiah’s prophesy concerning the suffering servant of Yahweh who was buried in a rich man’s tomb
  • A group of women followed Joseph and saw where he buried Jesus
  • They went back home to prepare spices with which to wash Jesus’ body after the Sabbath
  • Jesus was indeed a king judged by the way he was buried


Qn p. define the term resurrection

The term resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead. This event took place on the third day i.e. the Sunday morning after Jesus was crucified on Friday afternoon

Qn q. the witnesses of the risen Christ

The testimony of the repentant thief

  • He rebuked his unrepentant companion
  • He recognized his own sinful condition
  • He declared Jesus to be sinless
  • He professed in Jesus’ true Messiah-ship and Lordship
  • He recognized that Jesus would live and exercise his saving power after he died

The testimony of Joseph of Arimathea

  • Joseph of Arimathea was a secret disciple of Christ
  • He witnessed to the lordship of Jesus Christ after his death by his actions
  • He did this by seeking permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus
  • By giving Jesus this royal burial he was witnessing to the truth that Jesus was king

Testimony of the holy woman

  • On the day after the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Jesus went to the tomb planning to prepare Jesus’ body for a proper burial
  • On arrival, they found the stone covering the tomb had been rolled away
  • The tomb was also empty
  • Two men in dazzling clothes confirmed that Jesus had risen as he had prophesied. The two men were angles
  • When the women learnt of Jesus’ resurrection, they broke the news to the apostils and all the others.

The apostles rejected the women’s testimony

The testimony of disciples on their way to Emmaus

  • Jesus appeared to the disciples who were on their way to Emmaus
  • They were discussing Jesus’ suffering, death and the empty tomb
  • They regarded Jesus’ death as a tragedy, for they had hoped he would liberate the Jews from the Roman rule
  • Jesus explained to the scriptures, which say the messiah would suffer to reach his glory.
  • They invited Jesus to dine with them
  • Jesus shared the Holy Eucharist with them before they recognized whom he was at the breaking of the bread
  • The disciples at Emmaus thus became the second witnesses to the risen Christ. The effect of this testimony is that the disciples went and told the eleven apostles about their encounter with the risen


Qn r. the appearance of Jesus to the disciples

  • As the disciples narrated their encounter with Jesus to the eleven apostles, Jesus appeared to them
  • Jesus asked them to confirm that he had risen by touching his body
  • He explained to the apostles his mission through telling them the prophesies about him in the law of Moses, prophets and psalms
  • Jesus brought his disciples to be witnesses by proclaiming repentance and forgiveness of sins
  • He tested some cooked fish
  • He promised that he was going to be with them through the power of the Holy Spirit



Qn s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

  • From Jerusalem Jesus led his disciples to Bethany
  • He raised his hands blessed the disciples and lifted to heaven
  • The disciples returned and witnessed Jesus’ ascension with joy
  • They continued to go to the temple to pray to God waiting for the Holy Spirit that Jesus had promised them
  • From this incidence where Jesus blessed the disciples, we learn that the disciples became confident about their mission. This earlier disbelief and blindness to who Jesus was now overcome

Qn t. Give five evidences from the bible that show that Jesus Christ rose from the dead

  • The tomb was empty
  • Assurance of the angle to the women that Jesus had risen
  • Thomas witnessed the resurrection by feeling the scars on Jesus’ hands
  • The women who had gone to the tomb had found it empty
  • The disciples witnessed his resurrection when he appeared to the two disciples at Emmaus
  • Jesus shared a meal with his disciples after his resurrection in Jerusalem
  • Jesus walked with the disciples up to Bethany prior to his ascension

Qn t. explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Jesus to Christian life

  • The passion deed and resurrection refers to seven incidences namely, Jesus’ last supper, suffering in the garden, suffering before Sanhedrin, Pilate and Herod; mocking by the soldiers, death on the cross, resurrection and ascension
  • Those events are of great significance to the modern Christians. First they proof that Jesus was indeed the son of God and the Messiah
  • The passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was a fulfillment of the Old Testament prophesies and Psalms
  • The resurrection resulted in the rapid spread of the church. The spread of the church is as a result of the risen Christ and the influence of the Holy Spirit
  • The resurrection is thus the basis/ the central idea or foundation in the Christian faith and missionary activity; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is useless and you believing it is useless
  • The passion, death and resurrection reveal the power of God to those who believe in him. They also prove that Jesus who was God’s triumphant envoy is alive and Christians are assured living again after the physical death
  • The raising of Jesus from the dead proved that Jesus was not only man but lord over human life so that Christians share in his life on earth by believing in him and living according to the fruits of the Holy Spirit
  • The resurrection of Jesus is a source of inspiration and confidence in Christians. It also points to the fact that Jesus was a man of his word i.e. he fore told the resurrection and it came to pass. His resurrection was a real fact because he showed his disciples the crucifixion marks
  • All that happened during the passion, death and resurrection of Christ was just a completion of God’s revelation through Christ
  • They also point to the power and glory of God in which those who believe share in the hope of their own resurrection in the second coming of Jesus

Qn v. the significance of Jesus’ resurrection to Christians today

  • It is the foundation of the Christian faith and hope which their belief would be useless
  • Christian faith would be in vain (futile) if Jesus had not resurrected
  • Through resurrection Christians have confidence and hope in God because the one they believe in has been exalted and sits at the right hand of God almighty
  • Through the resurrection, Christians are given hope of eternal life
  • The resurrection of Jesus led to the coming of the Holy Spirit which helps Christians to live according to the teachings of Christ, preach the gospel and speak boldly against the evils in the society
  • The resurrection give meaning to baptism in that one dies in sin and is raised with Christ to new life
  • The resurrection confirms the divinity of Jesus as the true son of God
  • The resurrection gives Christians courage to face death because they have hope of resurrecting at his second return
  • It is remembered by Christians during the Eucharist

Qn w. explain five importance of Eulogy of death in the society today

  • It enables mourners to know the cause or nature of death
  • It enables the mourners to forgive the dead person in case of any grudge between them and the dead person
  • It enables the mourners to ask for forgiveness from the dead person
  • It enables the mourners know the wish or last words of the deceased before he/ she died
  • Mourners have an opportunity to declare what they owe or are owed by the dead
  • It enables mourners to know the contribution of work of the dead to the society
  • It provides the mourners with an opportunity to know the nature or character of the dead and his/her social life
  • It enables mourners to know the background or life history of the deceased e.g. education.








The Holy Spirit is the third person in the trinity. There is the power of Christ, the power of God, and the Holy Spirit who gives gifts such as prophecy and healing. The Holy Spirit is mentioned several times in the Bible; (1) during creation in Genesis, (2) at the annunciation of the birth of Jesus, (3) at the beginning of the ministry of Jesus, (4) during baptism, (5) revelation of Jesus in the temple (6) Jesus spoke of the

Holy Spirit during his mission or ministry, after resurrection and before ascension

  1. The role of Holy Spirit in Church and in Christian lives today.

Read JOHN 14:15-26 and JOHN 16: 5-15, ACTS 1: 7- 8

The Holy Spirit has many roles in the church and in Christian lives today. These roles are to:

Teach Christians on a daily basis messages of Jesus

Live in the hearts of believers of Christ

Be an advocate, a counselor, helper and a comforter to those who love Jesus Christ and obey God’s commandments

He would remind the disciples the words said by Jesus Christ and introduce them to their deeper meanings.

Interpret the deeper meaning of the messages of Jesus Christ

Reveal the truth and mysteries of and about God

Affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God

Reveal the glory of Jesus death

Reveal what is right and wrong

Give the disciples of Jesus power to become witnesses of Christ.

Give courage to the disciples of Jesus and modern Christians to face prosecution on the account of following Jesus

Enable the disciples to expose the secret lives and heart of sinful people

Guide Christians; help believers to cast away evils spirits, to heal, to preach the word of God, to encourage, and to condemn evil in the society.

  1. Paul teaching about the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Read 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14

Spiritual gifts are extra-ordinary favors, talents, abilities, and dispositions given to Christians by God for the benefit of all believers. The gifts are used for the service of others and not for self-glorification and gratification.

The message of Peter on the day of the Pentecost

Peter told the disciple that what was happening was the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy.

– He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God.

– He said that the suffering and death of Jesus was according to God’s plans.

Death was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecy.

Gifts of the Holy Spirit

  1. Gift of wisdom: – having deep understanding of issues- ‘seeing far’, being perceptive.
  2. Gift of knowledge: – ability to understand the basic facts about Jesus, His mission and knowledge about spiritual issues.
  3. The gift of faith: – refers to the confidence in God’s help. It is deep trust in God.
  4. The Gift of healing: – ability, and power to heal all forms of sickness by calling upon the name of Jesus


  1. The gift of performing miracles: – gift of healing miracles, creative miracles for example, dead legs becoming alive.
  2. 6. The gift of preaching
  3. 7. The gift of prophecy: – the ability to interpret God’s word. The ability to foresee what will happen in the future as revealed by God.
  4. The gift of distinguishing spirits or discernment: – the ability to know whether a spiritual gift is from

God, the Holy Spirit or from the evil spirit

  1. The gift of speaking in tongues. The ability to utter, speak in a tongue, language unknown to the believer. Tongues are used when addressing God for self-edifications. It is personal growth.
  2. The gift of interpretation of tongues: – the ability to understand and interpret the messages of those speaking in tongues.
  3. The gift of love. (Read 1 Corinthians 13)

Paul stressed that all the gifts of the Holy Spirit are to be demonstrated with love. He stressed that love, a fruit of the Holy Spirit is supreme over other spiritual gifts possessed by Christians. It’s the greatest of all. Speaking in tongues, preaching, and martyrdom without love is useless.

Components of Love

Love is patient, kind, not jealous or boastful, not arrogant or rude, is not ill mannered or selfish, and does not insist on its own way. It is not disrespectful. It is not irritable or resentful. It does not rejoice at wrong but rejoices in truth. It bears all things.

Love believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things. Love is eternal. Love never fails. The other gifts are temporary but love, faith and hope are eternal.

  1. Manifestation of the Holy Spirit in the church and Christians today

Gifts of the Holy Spirit have been manifested in churches today. We see this manifestation through people possessing the gifts of the Holy Spirit. For example, leaders in church have displayed the gift of wisdom. Preachers and Christian’s ministers have been casting out demons and performing healing.

There are reported cases of interpretation of tongues and gift of prophecy in churches today.

When Christians display the gifts of the Holy Spirit such as speaking in tongues the Holy Spirit is manifested. Other manifestations of the Holy Spirit are:

Through healing, prophecy, gifts of discernment, boldness in preaching, and casting out demons among others

Christians helping the poor by giving generosity and in kindness

Through singing, dancing, shouting (fruit of joy)

Through unity of believers and fellowships

Through praying,

Christian’s persecutions/temptations

  1. Criteria for Discerning the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

Christians who have the Holy Spirit and are guided by Jesus have certain characteristics. These are:

They will confess that Jesus is Lord

They cannot say a curse.

They speak the truth. They worship God and behave in accordance with Jesus teaching.

They led by the Holy Spirit and are known by the fruits of the Holy Spirit. These fruits are love, joy, peace, and patience.

Such persons serve all Christians without discrimination and strife.

They do not do sinful acts such as sexual immorality. They do not practice idolatry, and sorcery. They do not have in their hearts and minds hatred, and jealously or any other negative feelings and actions.

  1. The fruits of the HOLY SPIRIT (GALATIANS 5:16-26)

Paul taught that the fruit of the spirit are: Love, Joy, Patience, Long suffering, Goodness or Generosity, Faith and faithfulness, Peace, Meekness and kindness, gentleness, self- control and temperance.

Answer these questions after reading – JOHN 14:15-26 and JOHN 16: 5-15, ACTS 1: 7- 8 and 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14.

  1. What is the role of the Holy Spirit among Christians? (Read a)
  2. Discuss the gifts of the Holy Spirit
  3. Write a talk about the Holy Spirit
  4. Define love?
  5. Describe the different types of love
  6. Why do Christians need the Holy Spirit today?
  7. State the role of love in church and in Christian lives today.
  8. How has the gift of the Holy Spirit been manifested in Christian lives?
  9. Which activities show that the Holy Spirit is working among Christian in Kenya.
  10. How have the gifts of the Holy Spirit been misused in the church today?

Answers are also in the text. Read sections with answers

  1. The role of the Holy Spirit

-An advocate, a counselor and a comforter.

-He would remind and introduce the disciples to the deeper meaning of the word of Jesus Christ. To reveal the myth and mysteries of God.

-He would affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God.

-He would reveal the glory of Jesus’ death.

-He would enable the disciples to discern and expose the secret heart of sinful men.

  1. The gift of the Holy Spirit has been misused today by pride and public manifestation of the gift as a way of show off. Some Christians have misused the gift of Holy Spirit of prophecy by prophesying for money.




Jews commemorate Pentecost day. This is the day that God gave Moses his laws on Mount Sinai. It is also referred to as the festival of weeks. Pentecost day was celebrated 50 days after the Passover. It was compulsory for all Jews. On this day, Jews brought offering, the first fruits of harvest, to the temple in Jerusalem.

  1. Pentecost a day

On the Pentecostal day, the disciples were gathered in Jerusalem awaiting the promise of the Holy Spirit. And as promised, the Holy Spirit came in the form of a strong wind, and tongues of fire. The Holy

Spirit rested on the head of each disciple. The disciples received the gift of the Holy Spirit. They spoke in new tongues. Some of the observers mistook this experience. They thought that the disciples were drunk with wine.

Peter stood up to explain what was happening and defend the disciples. He told those who saw the experience that the disciples were not drunk. It was in the morning.

  1. Peter’s Message. Read Joel 2: 28 – 32

Peter told the onlookers that; what was happening is fulfillment of Joel’s prophesies about the outpouring of Gods spirit. He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God. This was proved by the miracles that Jesus performed. He emphasized that the suffering and death of Jesus was according to God’s plans. Jesus is a descendant of David. Death and the resurrection of Jesus fulfilled prophesies in the Old Testament.

God raised Jesus from the dead. He taught that Jesus had both the nature of God and Man. The apostles are the living witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus. Jesus has been exalted and sits on the right hand of God where He is Lord and Judge. They holy Spirit is a gift from Jesus

Peter then invited the listeners to repentance so that they could be forgiven and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Three thousand souls accepted salvation message and were added to the fellowship of the disciples.

  1. After the Holy Spirit infilling.

The disciples sold their possessions and goods and assisted the needy. They did many wonders and signs. They continued to live in unity, worshiping God, fellowshipping together, and breaking the bread.

  1. Lessons Christians learn from Leadership of Peter.

Christians should be:

  1. Courageous and stand up for Jesus Christ all the times.
  2. Ready to spread the Gospel of Christ.
  3. Win new converts to Jesus by inviting them to repentance.
  4. Have faith in the risen Christ.
  5. Pray to be filled with the Holy Spirit like Peter and those in church leadership should take their roles seriously.
  6. Relevance of the Pentecostal Experience

Speaking in diverse tongues signified that Christianity is a universal religion. It pointed out the importance of all languages when communicating to God. There were no specific languages for speaking with God, as it was when Latin was the language of literacy and Christianity.

Christians should be bold in their preaching. They should not be afraid as they have the counsel and helper, the Holy Spirit. Christians should understand that God chooses anyone as a leader, preacher, and witness of Christ.

Pentecostal experience signifies that Christians need to receive and be filled with the Holy Spirit

Revision questions

  1. a) Explain the meaning of the Pentecost
  2. b) Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit on the day of the Pentecost (Acts 2: 1-40) (or narrate the events that took place on the day of the Pentecost)
  3. c) Write down five teachings about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day of the Pentecost
  4. d) What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader of the apostolic church?
  5. e) What lessons can Christians learn from the events of the day of the Pentecost?
  6. f) State the teachings of Jesus on the Holy Spirit (John 14:14-26) (acts 1:7-8)
  7. g) What is the role of the Holy Spirit according to Jesus?
  8. h) What is the role of the Holy Spirit in the believers or the church or Christians?
  9. i) Outline the fruits of the Holy Spirit
  10. j) State the criteria for discerning the spiritual gifts
  11. k) List down the gifts of the Holy Spirit
  12. l) Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts
  13. m) Explain how the Holy Spirit is manifested in the church today
  14. n) State ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit are being abused in the church today




Unity of believers refers to oneness of those who have faith in Jesus Christ.

  1. Early Christians

The early Christians in Jerusalem demonstrated their unity by.

Holding joint prayer sessions

Sharing the Lords supper that is Eucharist

Sharing their possessions with the poor

They showed oneness and unity as believers. They expressed their oneness using various terms, images, Metaphors and symbols. They regarded themselves as the people of God, the church and an Assembly of God. When they celebrated the last supper, eating of bread was a symbol of the body of Christ. They saw themselves as belonging to one tree with the vine and branches. As followers of Christ, the early

Church saw itself as the Bride of Christ.

  1. Discussion of Symbolic Expressions
  2. The people of God

Read 1 PETER 2: 9-10. Peter has outlined the characteristics of the people of God. He says that the people of God are –

Believers in God: through faith in Jesus Christ.

The ‘Chosen race’, ‘a royal priesthood’, a holy nation’ ‘a chosen people’

-Those that stand out from the rest because they live a holy and righteous life.

Form a Holy nation chosen to proclaim the works of God.

Not just the descendants of Abraham but people who follow Jesus Christ and His teachings.

  1. The body of Christ

Read 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, and Ephesians’ 4:1-12.

The Holy Spirit is the one who brings Christians together as one body of Christ to serve the church.

Christians are given gifts for the purpose of sharing the body of Christ.

Jesus Christ is the head of the church. And just as the body has many parts, playing different roles, so has the Church. Every member of the church plays a vital role because different members have different spiritual gifts and callings. Some are Apostles, Teachers, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Miracle performers, Administrators and those who show mercy to others and encourage (exhort) others.

All church activities should be directed to the welfare of the church, just as the function of each part of the body is necessary for the well being of the whole body. To have a united body, members should be meek and patient in order to bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit. For a church to be united, or to be considered as one body, Christians should have faith in God the father, one Lord Jesus Christ, and one Holy Spirit and have faith in God through Jesus Christ.

iii. The Vine and the Branches

Read John 15:1-10

The vine represents Jesus. Vine tree was a tree that bore grapes. The vine tree was a symbol of prosperity and peace. Jesus is the vine and the Father is the vinedresser. Christians/ believers are the branches. They are expected to produce good fruits by remaining faithful and united in Christ. Faithful branches bear fruit like good Christians while unfruitful branches are like unfruitful Christians.

Christians should remain united to Christ who is the vine so as to bear fruits. The teachings of Jesus purify the Christians. The dead branches of the Vine trees are cut off and the livings ones are trimmed or pruned. This is done so that the vines may produce high yields. Likewise unfaithful Christians, believers are rebuked and corrected so as to bear high yields.

  1. The Church or Assembly of God. Read Ephesians 5: 21 – 32

Church is a Greek word “““ekklesia””, which means people, People who belong to the Lord. Assembly of God is the coming together of people of diverse social and cultural backgrounds who recognize lordship of Jesus. The church is likened to the relationship between a husband and a wife. Christians (the church) are expected to be united with Christ just as a husband and wife are united in marriage. Just as husbands and wives are expected to love one another, so too, are Christians called upon to express love to one another and to love God.

A husband is the head of a family; Jesus is also the head of the church.

  1. The Bride. Read 2 Corinthian 11: 2, and Revelations 21: 1 – 12

In the Old Testament, God calls Israel a bride. In the New Testament, Christians are referred to as “a bride’ in the New Jerusalem’. God or Jesus Christ is the bridegroom. Christians are reminded that the life on earth is a temporary home. Their real home is in heaven, the Holy city of God. Just as a bride is expected to be faithful to her husband, so are Christians expected to be faithful to God by observing the covenant way of life. Deviation from the covenant was portrayed as adultery.

John, who wrote the book of revelations, sees a vision of a new heaven and a new earth in which faithful Christians will be rewarded. Christ will come to take His bride to eternity to live there forever. The relationship between Christians and Jesus/ God is like a marriage. It is a covenant. It is a relationship where the church (bride) is expected to submit to God. Jesus died for the church, a show of His or God’s love. Likewise Christians should be committed in their relationship to God.

Q 1. Discuss in twos who is a bride and what takes place in a wedding.

  1. Discuss the significance of the symbols used to express the unity of the believers. These are “The people of God”, “The body of Christ”, “The vine and the branches” “The church or assembly of God” and “The bride”.



The early church experienced some challenges, which led to divisions among the early disciples and Christians.

  1. Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

After Jesus ascended to his Father and left the Holy Spirit to look after his followers, the disciples established congregations or communities to spread the Word of God. As believers of Christ met and prayed together, there were disagreements and divisions brought about by several factors and issues.

These were:

Disputes, among early Christians; were concerning leadership of the Church. Christians wanted different leaders: Paul, Apollo’s, Cephas or Christ. Paul told them that Christ couldn’t be divided (1 Corinthians

1:10 -21).

Sexual immorality was another cause of disunity in the early church. Some Christians were doing or having irresponsible sexual behaviors. These were incest, fornication, and prostitution. Paul condemned such behaviors and told Christians to stop sinning and honor God with their bodies. The body of a Christian is the temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthian 5: 1-13, 6:12 – 20).

-Christians settling disputes in civil courts. Paul advised they ought to talk over issues among themselves and agree to solve problems on their own (1 Corinthians 6).

-Dispute over marriage and divorce. Some Christians were opposed to marriage. Others were encouraging divorce. Paul addressed these issues in 1 Corinthian, chapter 71-16. Paul advised Christians that it was okay to marry or not to marry. But marriage was needed to stop immorality.

Eating of meat offered to idols. Some Christians were eating meat offered to idols while others were against it. Paul advised Christians not to eat anything that will cause their faith to weaken or fail. (1 Corinthians 8 and10: 14 – 20.

There were disputes about dressing during worship. Should women cover their head during worship?

Should women shave hair? Should men wear long hair? (1 Corinthian 11:1-16).

-Some Christians were overeating and over drinking during the Holy Communion – misuse of the Lord’s Supper, (1 Corinthians 11:17 – 33).

-Misuses of spiritual gift especially the gift of speaking in tongues. Paul taught that all gifts are equal (1 Corinthians 12).

There was a misunderstanding about the resurrection of the body and the dead. Some were saying there is no resurrection. Paul preached that if there is no resurrection then their preaching was in vain as they were witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15).

  1. Causes of disunity among believers and church in Kenya today

– Leadership differences. Some Christians are struggling for power. This has led to formation of splinter groups, divisions and enmity between these groups.

– Cultural differences. Christians are divided by their African cultural beliefs from their backgrounds. This culture is merged with Christianity and Western cultural practices forming a unique mixture of beliefs.

Some Christians are permissive, while others are conservative. This has led to disunity, for example in the areas of dressing.

-Discrimination. There is inequality within the church between the rich and the poor, the whites and blacks. Some Christians are viewed as more spiritual than others, on basis of the tribe, gender, wealth and social status among others.

-Misuse of freedom of worship. Christians are starting sprinter churches, probably because they want to control church finances without supervision by the wider church. To justify their departure, they spread propaganda against the ‘mother’ church, and other churches in order to attract followers. The more followers a church has the more tithe it collects.

-Misuse of church funds. Some church leaders and followers misuse church funds

Differences in the practice of baptism

-Arrogance and pride by some Christians.

Sins: sexual immorality in the church, divorce and marriage issues.

Some Christian denominations reject the human nature of the person of Jesus Christ; that Christ had both a human and divine nature e.g. Nomiya church.

Q: Can you think of factors that led to disunity among Christians in the early church that you have noted in the Kenyan church?

  1. Reasons why Christians should work in Unity.

Christians face many problems and they therefore need to work together in unity to:

-Promote oneness of Christians in Jesus Christ.

-Promote the teachings of Jesus Christ.

-Achieve effective evangelism or ministry.

-Adopt a common attitude to the integration of African culture in worship.

-Prevent the formation of sprinter groups and cults.

-Reduce the internal wrangling.

-Have a common stand in dealing with issues affecting the society.


  1. Possible Solutions to disunity

The church should settle issues that divide its members by Christians:

Learning to appreciate and respect the practices and belief of other Christian’s denominations.

-Having or forming a common goal

-Striving to be guided by the principle of love in solving problems facing them.

-Observing the teachings of disciples, prophets, apostles, God, laws of —Moses, Jesus and the Bible.

-Avoiding doing anything to their fellow Christians that would cause suffering and disharmony.

-Activities that the early church did in order to remain united were that they:

-Ate bread together.

-Held fellowships together.

-Shared with the needy.

-Prayed together for each other

In the current worldwide Church, there is disunity amongst believers or Christians. The most common ones are due.

-Leadership differences and wrangles for power.

-Cultural differences amongst Christians.

-Some Christians are permissive while others are conservative.

-Differences in the interpretation of the Bible.

-Misuse of church funds

-Pride and arrogance.

Revision questions

  1. Write down terms used in the New Testament to refer to believers in Christ
  2. Identify five causes of disunity in the church today
  3. Identify factors which cause disunity among the Christians today
  4. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it difficult to harmoniously live together
  5. Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today



This chapter introduces one to the work of prophets in the Old Testament. In Form One, some Prophets were taught e.g. Moses, Elijah, Nathan and Samuel. Traditional African prophets were also taught.

In Form Three, we compare true and false prophets and the Traditional African prophets.


  1. Definitions of a prophet, and prophecy

The word prophet comes from a Hebrew word “Rabii’ meaning ‘one who is called or one who announces God’s message. A prophet is also referred to as a seer. A prophet is a person sent by God to teach and give people messages about things to come in future from God. Prophets received divine messages from God and communicated them to the people.

A prophet is therefore a person who foretells events as revealed to him or her by God. Examples of prophets include Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah and prophetesses (female prophet) Deborah, and Huidah.

Prophecy is a statement, a message of something that is going to happen in the future. The action of giving future messages is called prophecy.

  1. Categories of prophets

There were many categories of prophets. These were:

  1. a) Major Prophets. These were Prophet’s whose messages covered a long period of time. Their messages were long and detailed. For example, Prophet Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.
  2. b) Minor prophets. There are 12 books of the Minor Prophets examples they are called minor because their messages are short, brief and do not contain detailed information. The Minor Prophets are Amos, and Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
  3. c) Canonical prophets the term canon means law. Canonical prophets are law prophets. The individual utterances of these prophets are laws. Both minor and major prophets are canonical prophets,
  4. d) The early prophets are Moses, Nathan Elijah, and Elisha. These prophets belonged to guilds schools.

Their prophecies are not recorded under their names. Their prophecies are written in books, which do not bear their names.

  1. e) Cultic prophets like Hannah (N.T.) served in the places of worship. They assisted the priest officiating worship
  2. f) Professional / court prophets like Samuel, Micah, and Gad lived together in the temple and in groups.

They earned their living through their work. They did not work elsewhere

  1. g) False prophets are pretenders to speak in the name of Yahweh but God did not call them. They spoke lies in accordance with the messages people wanted to hear.
  2. Characteristics of true prophets

There were two (2) major categories of prophets in the Old Testament, (1) true prophets and (2) false prophets. True prophets are those whose prophecies occurred and were fulfilled. Prophesies of false prophets did not occur. True prophets distinguished themselves from false prophets and ordinary people.

They experienced God dramatically when He called them and in their ministry. They were God’s spokesmen and women. They responded in faith to their call.

God gave them specific tasks in their commission and God’s assurance and support in their ministry.

They urged people to repent and turn back to God.

In their messages, they taught that God demands sincere worship and not elaborate rituals. They understood God and taught about God righteous-ness, goodness, mercifulness, and loving care. They condemned evil in the society and proclaimed God’s judgment and punishment to those who failed to keep the covenant. They spoke with authority and acted with courage. They upheld God as a universal God for all nations. They talked of a remnant that shall remain after punishment or those that have continued to worship God sincerely. Their utterances were true because they were fulfilled.

They spent a lot of their time in prayers. They prayed regularly. At such times they withdrew from people in order to have a quiet time to seek God.

All the true prophets received opposition from their audiences and they were ready to suffer for telling God’s word.

  1. The Characteristics of false prophets.

Some of the prophecy of false prophets contradicted prophesies of the true prophets. False prophets followed their own imaginations, and gave false hopes. They told people what they wanted to hear.

They had no personal knowledge of God. Hence, their prophecies were not in line with the divine revelations.

They used evil forces such as magic, and divinations to call upon the spirits of the dead. They were paid for prophesy and benefits materially from their clients. They served Baal and were mainly immoral. They committed crime.

Review questions

How can we know true and false prophets today?




  1. Work of prophets in Israel

Prophets kept Israelites in communication with God. They communicated God’s will to the people of Israel. They foretold God’s judgments and punishment for sinners. They condemned the behavior of the rich towards the poor. Through their messages, people reformed their lives since they condemned all forms of social evils and ritual sins. They contributed to the writing of their messages leading to the compilation of the Bible.

Prophets guided and gave people hope. They taught people the laws of God. They warned people of dangers to come. They condemned idolatry and stressed the worship of one true God, Yahweh.

They anointed the Kings in Israel. Kings consulted the prophets before any major undertaking such as war among others.

They acted as conscience of kings. They advised them and challenged Kings when they went wrong.

  1. God’s communication with prophets and Israelites

God communicated to Prophets through visions, voices that were audible and clear, events, prayers, dreams, signs, ordinary things, and words which came to their minds with great power.

Writing messages of the prophets

The canonical prophets as mentioned earlier had their works and prophecies recorded under their names. Canonical prophets are referred to as writing prophets. It’s possible that some prophets wrote down their own prophecies. They wrote what God spoke to them as He dictated. An example is Jeremiah who wrote what he was told …’Get a scroll and write on it everything that I have told you about Israel, Judah and all nations. (Jeremiah 36:2, Isaiah 30:8).

Two, the prophet’s message were probably written by other people. These were their assistant, secretary, scribe, and disciples or followers as the prophet prophesied.

Thirdly some of the prophetic messages could have been preserved as oral traditions and later written as books. A good example is 2 Kings.

  1. Content of the Prophetic messages

Prophetic messages contained lessons from God to Israel. For example, the:

  1. Prophetic sayings were and still are oracles or poetic passages spoken by God himself through prophets. The prophecies were addressed to different nations. They carried specific teachings to the people, for example predicting future occurrences
  2. Narratives in the first person give an account of the prophet’s testimony. They spoke of their experiences with God, and responses to the call of God. They tell us about prophet’s impelling compulsion to speak God’s word. The narratives are written in the first person. They have a format ‘The Lord said to me… The year that King Uzziah died, I was the Lord…”

iii. Narratives in the third 3rd person have messages written by a third party, i.e. not the prophet but another person. For example, “Isaiah said to them, “Thus you shall say to your master, thus says the

Lord: “Do not be afraid of the words.” (Isaiah 37:6). The message recounts the prophets’ personal life, and political background.




The Israelites and the African traditional societies as well as other world communities had prophets who foretold the future. Among the Israelites, there were prophets chosen by God and false prophets who told messages which communities wanted to hear. Among the African traditional communities, there were wise men and women who prophesied about the future.

In this lesson, we shall compare these prophecies and learn what was similar and different about these them. The Old Testament prophecies are compared with those from the African traditional society and the New Testament

-Learning outcomes. After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

  1. State relationships between Prophesies in the Old Testament New Testament and the African Traditional Society
  2. Discuss the similarities between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament
  3. Identify differences between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament

Several Old Testament (O.T.) prophecies were and are fulfilled in both the old and New Testament (N.T) in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. The Law of Moses is used in both the Old Testament and the New Testament. However Jesus gave the law a deeper meaning.

The teachings and prophecies of the prophets provided the foundation for the message in the New Testament. The prophecies of Prophet Nathan to King David that God would raise up an offspring from the lineage of David were fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the expected messiah.

Jesus disciples in the New Testament referred a lot to messages in the Old Testament. The teachings of Jesus in the New Testament are based in the Old Testament prophecies. They are therefore similar to each other because New Testament is a continuation of the Old Testament.

The New Testament is the new covenant spoken of by Prophet Jeremiah and other Prophets like Isaiah, Micah, and Nathan. Their prophecies about Messiah are fulfilled in the New Testament.

  1. Similarities between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament. In both traditions, prophets:

Were endowed with divine powers and they dealt with religious matters.

Acted as intermediaries between God and people

Warned people of impending dangers and disasters due to disobedience

Had supernatural experiences

Encouraged morality and discouraged evil ways

In some cases, could heal

Withstood oppression and opposition by the political rulers

Encouraged people to fight injustices in society

 Foretold future disasters such as drought and wars. They explained why they were going to occur.

Were consulted when things were not well in the society.

Received revelations through dreams, visions and thoughts

 were gender sensitive male prophets and female prophetesses.

  1. Differences (O.T.) between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament.

The Old Testament prophets had a personal relationship with God. They communicated God’s messages to Israelites.

The prophets in the African traditional society communicated and received messages from the ancestor spirits

Old Testament prophets were God’s mouthpieces. They began their prophesy with ‘thus saith the lord’…. While the prophets in the African traditional society predicted what would happen to individuals, and communities.

The authority of prophets in the Old Testament came from God while the authority of prophets in the

African traditional society came from their ancestors’ spirits.

In the Old Testament prophets were called directly by God while in some African traditional communities the prophetic office was hereditary. The African traditional prophets dealt with family and local community issues while Old Testament prophets dealt with national issues, and crises. African traditional prophets were diviners while Old Testament prophets consulted God.

  1. Relevance of Old Testament prophets to Christians today

Christian should be ready to be messengers of God. The call to be a Christian has a prophetic role. Some

Christians are called to the office of a prophet and should prophecy for the glory of God and for the common good of the people. As God’s spokes person one should always stand for the truth. Christian should proclaim God’s will even if the message is not pleasant to the people.

Once appointed as a prophet, one should pass the messages to whoever they are sent to without fear or favor. God’s messengers should always condemn the social political economic evils in the society.

As God’s messengers Christians should live exemplary lives. They should stand for what they preach and should expect persecutions because of their works as God’s messengers. They should be ready to suffer for the sake of the gospel.

Christians should pray to God to give them guidance, wisdom, and inspiration to be able to handle hardships in their lives. They should provide hope for the people in times of suffering.

Christians should realize that God calls both men and women to His service. They should be ready to obey Gods’ prophetic call and not run away e.g. Jonah. They should be concerned and take care of the welfare of the poor community members.


Revision questions

  1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy
  2. List five categories of true prophets
  3. State the difference between true and false prophets
  4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?
  5. Outline the similarities and differences between the Old Testament prophets and the traditional African ones.
  6. What is the relevance of prophets to Christians today?




Amos is one of the prophets God sent to Israel to warn the people because of their evil life. Politically, the Nation of Israel had become rich. There grew classer, the rich and the poor. The rich started oppressing the poor.

Socially, there was still the rich – poor gap. The rich exploited the poor. Merchants sold bad food, expensive and used false measurer.

Religiously, the Israelites had turned away from God and were worshiping false gods. Syncretism was practiced. Priests were paid and God’s prophets were rejected.

It is in this situation that Amos was called.

He is called through visions.

Amos is one of the canonical or writing prophets. The book of Amos is a temptation of oracles spoken by the prophet on different occasions. Note that after the death of King Solomon, the kingdom of Israel was split into two and rules by Rehoboam and Jeroboam. The northern Kingdom; called Judah was ruled by Rehoboam and was inhabited by two tribes. The southern kingdom called Israel was ruled by

Jeroboam and was inhabited by 10 tribes. Amos came from Judah and prophesied in Israel.

Prophet Amos work in Israel Read Amos 1:1

  1. The call of Amos (AMOS 1:1, 3:8, 7:10 – 15)

Prophet Amos was born in a village called Tekoa in Judah, the southern kingdom. Before his call, Amos was a shepherd and a dresser of sycamore trees. He was not a professional prophet. But God called him to be a prophet. He received his call in form of a vision around 758 BC. Amos responded to God’s call with obedience. He felt a deep compulsion to prophesy (Amos 3:8). God directed him to give his message to the people of Israel, the northern kingdom (Amos 7:15). He was asked to speak the will of Yahweh. He was also to fore tell punishment if Israelites did not repent their sins. His message was opposed, and challenged by Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

  1. Religion.

Israelites worshipped Yahweh and other gods. Idolatry was also present. This form of worship is called Syncretism. There was religious hypocrisy. Like today, there was an emphasis on external observances of religious practices and less concern for internal observances. The priests were paid for religious work. Those who couldn’t pay did not have religious ceremonies. They were offered at the expense of the poor. The prophets of God were rejected.

  1. Social – economic – political situation.

When Amos prophesied, King Jeroboam ruled Israel, the northern kingdom while King Uzziah ruled Judah. Amos was sent to prophesy to the people of Israel in the northern kingdom. He concentrated his work mainly in Bethel and Samaria – the capital city of Israel and the main centers of worship.

When Amos started his prophesy, there was peace and prosper in Israel and Judah. Both kingdoms were wealthy. However, the wealth did not reach the poor. This was because the wealth and power were in the hands of the king, his family, his officials, and wealthy merchants. As a result, Israel citizens were divided into two classes; the rich and the poor.

Unfortunately, the rich people owned big luxurious houses. They drunk wine, and used the most expensive perfumes. They acquired their wealth at the expense of the poor. They oppressed and exploited the poor. The merchants of trade for example, were dishonest in their trade businesses. They sold bad wheat to unsuspecting customers and overcharged customers by measuring with false scales.

Because of the inflated prices, the poor borrowed money from the rich at high interest rates to buy basic things like food. Hence, there was massive bribery and corruption in society and law courts.

As a result the poor lacked basic necessities or needs like food, shelter, and clothing. It was at this time when God sent Amos to give prophesy to Israel.

  1. How did the rich oppress the poor in Israel?


Read AMOS 7: 1 – 9, 8:1 – 3. 9:1 – 4)

Vision is a picture we have in our mind. It is a future to come. Amos was shown many visions by God.

-Lesson outcomes. After reading these verses in Amos you should be able to: –

  1. Analyze all the visions and
  2. State the message of each vision
  3. Summaries things that God condemned through Amos
  4. The vision of the locusts (Amos 7:1 – 3)

Amos saw a swarm of locusts being sent by God to destroy all plants and food crops in the land. The locusts were a sign of disaster, which God was going to send to Israel as a punishment for their disobedience. Amos cried to God to forgive the people. God heard and changed his mind.

  1. The vision of a great fire (Amos 7:4 – 6)

Amos saw a vision of a supernatural fire that burnt up the land. He asked God to forgive the people and

God listened. The punishment was stopped.

  1. The vision of a crooked wall/ the plumb line (Amos 7:7 – 9)

Amos saw the Lord standing beside the wall checked it with a plumb line. The wall represented the Israelites. They stopped observing the laws of their covenant with God. God found Israelites disobeying the covenant. God promised to destroy holy places of Israel..

  1. The vision of a basket of ripe fruits (Amos 8:1 – 3)

In this vision, Amos saw a basket of ripe fruits. Fruits are harvested at the end of the summer. This meant that Israel was ripe for punishment for her refusal to turn to God. Amos did not pray for forgiveness. God would no longer withhold His judgment. Time for repentance was over.

  1. The vision of the destruction of the altar. Read Amos 9:1 – 4.

Amos saw the Lord standing by the altar. The Lord ordered the destruction of the temple. The shrines of Dan and Bethel were destroyed because they were the centres of idolatry. No one would escape punish-ment no matter where they hide.

Summary of issues that God pointed out to Israel through Prophet Amos

  1. Lack of social justice

There was lack of social justice and responsibility by the king of Israel. Social justice means dealing with other people fairly. It implies showing concern for the needs of others.

  1. Lack of responsibility.

This refers to the rulers and people of Israel being accountable for their actions.

In modern life, it is doing ones duty and fulfilling ones obligation to God and others.

  1. Practice of hypocritical religion in Israel.

The Israelites were insincere in their worship. They made empty sacrifi-ces. They worshipped idols as well as God. They profaned the name of God (Yahweh). They made idols of Baal and offered sacrifices to them. They worshipped other gods. This is syncretism and God does not allow worship of any other God but himself.

  1. God’s judgment against Israel and other nations.

God promised to destroy Israel and leave a remnant of them for restora-tion.

  1. Oppressions of the poor by the rich

God condemned King Jeroboam rule of Israel because of the oppression of the poor, government corruption and bribery of king’s officials. These officials sold the righteous for silver and the needy for a pair of sandals (shoes) i.e. it’s like practicing slavery. The rich trampled on the poor, despised them and placed no value on the poor. The poor gave their garments as security for loan. This was contrary to God’s commandments. The garment was supposed to be returned back to the owner before sunset. The Samaritan women were ‘fat like the well fed cows of Bashan’ led luxurious lives and were very unkind to the poor. The rich took an excessive share of the harvest from the farmers. Rulers loved luxury and were arrogant. They loved material things and showed pride in material possessions. They used expensive perfumes.

  1. Corruption and bribery.

The judges were corrupt. They accepted bribes. There was a conspiracy between the rich and the judges against the poor

  1. Pride in materials possessions

The capital city of Israel was Samaria. It was built on a mountain called Bethel, which was also a place of worship. There was prosperity in the land. The Israelites prided themselves in their riches and materials possessions. Amos told them God would destroy their wealth.

  1. Dishonesty.

This is telling lies, cheating or using unjust means to get certain things. The wealthy merchants waited impatiently for the end of the holy days so that they could engage in lucrative businesses. They cheated the poor by using false scales. They sold bad wheat to the poor. They mixed good and bad grains and sold them to unsuspecting people.

  1. Sexual immorality

Sexual immorality was prevalent or common in Israel. For example a father and son would have sex with the same girl. There was temple (cultic) prostitution. There was dishonesty; sexual immorality. This sexual behavior made the temple unholy.

  1. Drunkenness

They Israelites spent time drinking when the poor lacked the basic needs. They engaged in excessive drinking of wine. They even forced the Nazarites to drink wine. They accepted drunkenness.

  1. Profaning the name of the God

Israelites did not respect the name of God. They committed sin. They forced Nazirites to drink wine; forcing it down their throats yet they knew that Nazirites were people set aside and chosen by God to serve God. This act showed contempt of God’s commands. Nazirites were not supposed to drink wine or cut their hair. Israelites did this to show their contempt of the Lord.

  1. Hypocritical Religion and Idolatry in Israel

Hypocrisy is pretending to be something different from the person one is. It is also saying one thing, and doing another thing. For example, Israeli-tes did a lot of religious rites according to the laws of Moses and yet majority of them were unjust, corrupt and oppressed the poor. They observed the external religious activities while their hearts were corrupt and insincere. Amos condemned Israelites for this hypocrisy, characteri-zed by insincere worship, and mixture of religious beliefs leading to diverse practices of religion i.e. syncretism. This is a combination or mixture of Israelites’ monotheism (Yahwehism) and worship of idols and other gods especially Baal, the gods of their neighbors.

  1. Empty sacrifices

The Israelites made elaborative offerings and sacrifices. Yet God was interested only in sincere worship and free will offerings and not mere sacrifices, and tithes. ‘Take away from me the noise of your songs’ (Amos 5:21 – 23).



Read Amos chapter 1 and 2

  1. i) Israel.

She committed several crimes, which were condemned by Prophet Amos. Read lesson two again before you go on and list down crimes that were pointed out by Amos. Okay, you have seen that

Israel committed crimes of injustice, disobedience to God, breaking their covenant with God, idolatry, hypocrisy among other sins mentioned above. Israel was punished for these crimes.

Punishments were severe. Israelites would be exiled forcibly and painfully. Earthquakes, famines, fires, oppression from foreign kings, epidemics and divine silence, would destroy their kingdom and holy places.

  1. ii) Syria.

Its capital was Damascus. Syria committed war crimes. The soldiers were excessively cruel in times of war. They murdered their prisoners brutally. For this cruelty, their punishment was to be severe. Their palaces would be destroyed by fire and the people would be exiled in Kir.

iii) Gaza and philistines.

Their crime was capturing other people and selling them into slavery. For this sin, God’s punishment was destruction of their city by divine fire. It would burn down the wall of Gaza city and destroy it. God would have no more association with them.

  1. iv) Tyre.

Their Crime was violation of a treaty of friendship they had made. They broke it by capturing a “whole nation into exile in the land of Edom”. The punishment was …God would send fire to destroy city of Tyre and its fortress (Amos 1:9-10).

  1. Edom.

Her people were descendants of Esau. Yet Edom was ruthless to the Israelite to whom they were closely related. For this crime of ruthlessness, the punishment was … God would destroy them by fire

  1. vi) Ammon committed crime of brutal killings.

The people of Ammon attacked and killed their neighbors. They “ripped open pregnant woman in Gilead” (vs. 13). God’s punishment was destruction of the fortress and wall of the city of Rabbah by fire. “Their king and his officers will go into exile: (vs. 15).

vii) Moab.

The people of Moab; their crime was mishandling the body of the king of Edom. They burned his bones to ashes. God’s punishment was destruction of the city of Kerioth by divine fire. The people, their rulers and leaders would be killed in battle.

viii) Judah.

Their crimes were:

(1) Failure to obey God’s commands and

(2) Despising god’s teaching.

  1. ix) Samaria, Egypt and Ashdod.

Their crime was dishonesty and “filling their mansions with things taken by crime and violence” (Amos 3:10). Women of Samaria committed the crime of drunkenness, oppressing the weak and poor. The punishment for all these countries is destruction of their land, mansions and army. But a remnant will not go to captivity, and shall not be destroyed. Amos said the remnants are like … 2 legs, or a piece of an ear of a sheep rescued from the mouth of a lion (Amos 3:12)

  1. x) Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

He strongly opposed Amos and told him to go back and prophesy in

Judah. Amos told Amaziah God sent him to Israel. His punishment for opposing God’s messenger was Amaziah’s wife would be a harlot, his children will die in the war, his land will be given to others, and

Amaziah will die in a foreign land (Amos 7: 14-17).

Lessons to learn from God’s judgment of Israel and other nations

The Assyrians attacked Israel, occupied their land and exiled others. God is (a) universal; (b) God hates sin (c) God is concerned about the welfare of his people

(d) God is merciful and spares a remnant

  1. Israel’s election (Amos 2:9 – 11, 3:1 – 2, 9:7

Election: is an act of choosing a person or group of people for a purpose or action. Israel’s election refers to God’s choice of the Israelites out of the entire human kind to be his people. God chose them to serve him, be a Holy nation and to be the light of the world. God made a covenant with the Israelites. In the covenant they agreed to live a holy life. In return, God looked after them. He led them out of Egypt to the wilderness and finally to Canaan. God chose His prophets from the Israelites and raised Nazirites.

Despite God’s favour, the Israelites rebelled and sinned against God. And although Israelites were reminded that God cared for other nations equally and are to be punished if they disobeyed God; and that they were neither superior, nor better than other nations, they disobeyed God several times.

xii. The day of the lord

Amos taught that the day of the lord would be a day of severe judgment for sins.

. It is not a time of happiness, joy or victory. It is a day of darkness, terror, disaster, gloom, wailing, flooding, mourning, defeat, punishment, famine for food and God’s word.

xiii. The Remnant and Restoration.

Remnant means a small number of survivors. These are the Israelites who will remain after the entire nation is punished. They are also those who returned to Jerusalem after the exile.

Restoration is an act of reinstating things / persons to their former state or position. Amos informed the Israelites that God was still looking after them, and waiting for their repentance. The nation of Israel would not be destroyed completely. God would preserve the few righteous ones. He would raise the fallen dynasty of David. People would be restored back to their land to rebuild their cities. There was to be a great harvest and grapes shall overflow.

xiv. Duty of Christians.

Christians are the selected people of God. As the chosen ones, they should one, live holy lives and two, use their position to serve God and others. Three, Christians have a moral responsibility to spread God’s word, four, care for the needy and five, be the light of the world.

  1. The Day of the lord. Read Amos 5:18-20, 6:3-5, 8:7-13.

In the Old Testament, the day of the Lord is the day that Yahweh would make Israel victorious against other nations. On this day the Israelite believed that God would establish his rule over and with Israel. The day of the Lord was also believed to be the day when Israel would be prosperous, would have favor with God, and the just would triumph over the wicked.

In the New Testament, the day of the lord is also the Day of Judgment (Parousia). It is the day of the second coming of Christ. On that day, everyone will be judged. Christians believe that it is the day that Christ will come for His bride (the church). Those who had obeyed the laws of God shall be received by Christ and given the reward of the eternal life. On that day, God’s kingdom shall be established and Christ will reign forever.

xvi. Relevance of Amos teachings to Christians today.

The messages of the prophecy of Amos are relevant to Christians today. This is because God is universal. He chose Israel but still punished her for her disobedience and sins just as He punished other nations like Syria and Gaza.

The message that God hates hypocrisy is very clear. Thus Christians should truthful and practice what they preach. They must worship God in sincerity. Other messages are: Justice. Christians should be just / fair in dealing with others.

-Self – Indulgence. Christians should not pursue luxury and self-indulgence when others lack the basic needs.

-Bribery. Christians should condemn bribery and corruption, and uphold justice.

-Punishment. Christians should bear in mind that God will punish every evil.

-Wealth. When Israel became wealthy, they departed from the covenant with God. Christians should share their wealth with the needy and acquire their wealth justly

-Hypocritical religion. Amos taught about hypocrisy in religion. This was for example offering empty sacrifices. Christians have to learn to be sincere, to be concerned about their internal well being and soul more than outward observances of religion.

-Drunkenness. Christians should not engage in activities that can divert their faith from God. If that happens, they should learn to be Repentant.

Revision exercise

  1. List the visions that Amos saw
  2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings
  3. Give reasons why prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel
  4. List evils in the society today that Amos would condemn




Israel had not taken heed to Amos’ prophecies. This was especially on idolatry. So, God sent another prophet to continue with the same work. Jeremiah was therefore appointed as a prophet.

Jeremiah is one of the Old Testament Major Prophets. He was called to a prophet at around 627 B.C. He was called as a young man, probably 20 years old. He prophesied in the southern kingdom- Judah, for a period of 40 years. His prophetic ministry took place before and during the exile of Judah.


  1. The Kingdom of Judah

Social background

The people of Judah were divided into three social classes. At the top were the (i) Aristocrats. These were the ruling class, which consisted of the king, his family, royal officials, princesses, priests, and professional prophets. This class of the rich oppressed the poor.

Below them was the class (ii) of technical professional such as stonecutters, carpenters, builders, masons, blacksmiths, masons, and others craftsmen (2 Kings 12:12). Below them was class (iii) made up of poor people such as slaves, widows, orphans, and foreigners. All these poor people were mistreated.

In terms of ethics, there was moral degradation. They committed adultery, prostitution, murder, false witness, and corruption.

Religions background.

The Kings and people of Judah worshipped idols. They practiced human sacrifice, divination and magic, and listened to false prophecies. They abandoned their covenant with God and their way of life and practiced syncretism, which is worshipping God and other false gods like Baal.

King Josiah tried to restore true worship by carrying out several reforms. Prophetess Huldah prophesied that Judah would be punished after Josiah’s death since he humbled before Yahweh.

-Political Background.

Prophet Jeremiah lived in the 7th century BC and prophesied when Judah was ruled by King Josiah, and later his sons Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah; and king Jehoiachin. Judah was conquered and ruled by Assyrians who were conquered by Egyptians who ruled Judah up to 605 BC. Egyptians; were conquered by Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar. This was according to the prophecies of Jeremiah.

  1. The Call of Jeremiah. Read Jer 1: 19.

Jeremiah’s father was a priest called Hilkiah. He was born in the territory of Benjamin; at a place called Anathoth, He was well educated.

Jeremiah was called to be a prophet in 627 B.C during the reign of King Josiah. He received his call in form of a dialogue with Yahweh. God told him that he had appointed him to be his messenger; even before he was formed in his mother’s womb; God had selected him to be a prophet. Jeremiah said he was too young and did not know how to speak. Jeremiah was forewarned of the hostility he would encounter in his prophetic career. God told him that He would protect him and not to fear.

God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This symbolized that God is the one who shall put words in his mouth.

Jeremiah responded to God’s call in faith and obedience. He was given a message that God was going to bring judgment upon the Kingdom of Judah. God promised to make him a fortified city, an iron pillar and bronze wall for protection. He was commanded by God not to marry, neither have children and not to attend social gatherings, weddings, and funerals. His mission made him isolated and lonely.

As a result, his own family and relatives rejected him and plotted to kill him. But he had few friends like Ebed- melech, Ahikam who helped him to get out of a pit.

Jeremiah was persecuted by; the kings of Judah. Priests including priest Pashhur opposed him, and false prophets like Hannaniah. He prophesied that God shall punish wicked Kings, priests, and ordinary people. He suffered spiritually and emotionally.

At the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C, the army officers of Nebuchadnezzar released him from prison. He went to Egypt where he died at an old age and as a faithful servant of God. His life was symbolic to the people of Judah. During his call, Jeremiah saw two visions.

Vision one was the vision of a “branch of an almond tree”.

The tree seemed dead, bare, yet life was in it. This vision was telling Judah that although God seemed to be ‘sleeping’, He was watching over them if they obey Him.

Vision two was “a pot boiling in the north, and it is about to tip over this way” (1:13). The boiling pot tilted away from the north signified that the destroyers of Judah would come from the north. The pot was ready to boil over and spill its contents. This meant that Judah was soon going to have trouble.

Babylon would pour horrifying disasters on Judah.

Lessons from the call of Jeremiah

God has a purpose for each person and He can call anybody to do His work. He calls the unborn, the young, old, rich, and poor. God prepares people for His work, through specific experiences at family level, in school, and church.

A person who is called to serve God should be ready to meet opposition. God protects His servants and promises to be with them. Jeremiah felt inadequate to speak. Christians should not let their human weakness hinder them from performing their tasks. Christians should respond to God’s call in obedience.

EVILS ADDRESSED BY JEREMIAH. Read Jeremiah 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 23, and 28.

There were many evils in Judah and Israel. We have mentioned some of them. These were: necromancy, dishonesty, deception, false prophecy, human sacrifice, and idolatry

  1. Necromancy.

Words related to necromancy are divinations, magic, sorcery, and playing tricks on people’s minds. Necromancy is the art of seeking hidden knowledge from the mysterious world of spirits: using magic, and divination, which is invoking the dead. Divination was condemned in the Hebrew language. Diviners, magicians, sooth Sayers and fortunetellers used necromancy. Prophet Jeremiah condemned necromancy.

Reasons why Jeremiah condemned necromancy

Necromancy was a deception and therefore an evil practice. The diviners gave false information from their own imagination. This practice polluted the true worship of Yahweh and indicated Israelites lack of faith in the one true God. Two, by trusting in divination, and magic, the Israelites showed their lack of knowledge of the one true God. Three, by consulting the mediums, the Israelites disobeyed God (Jer 27:8-10).

  1. ii) Deception and Dishonesty

Dishonesty is lack of moral integrity or moral uprightness. Deception is cheating, and telling lies intentionally. It is also giving false and misleading information.

The Israelites were dishonest because they worshiped God and at the same time committed social injustices against their brothers and sisters. Their repentance was insincere. There was treachery, and greed. They laid traps for each other. People pretended to be friendly and at the same time conspired to kill. Jeremiah challenged the Israelites people to ‘circumcise their hearts which were deceitful. Their tongues were ‘deadly arrows’ and they listened to false prophesies like that of Hannaniah.

Jeremiah condemned deception. This was because it led to syncretism, and hypocrisy in worship; and breaking down of the covenant way of life. Jeremiah warned the Israelites and asked them to repent

iii. False prophesy by Hannaniah. Jer 28

During the reign of King Zedekiah, Hannaniah broke the yoke that Jeremiah was wearing. Hannaniah spoke in the name of Yahweh. He lied to the people as he spoke from his imagination and dreams.

Jeremiah denounced Hannaniah. He predicted and prophesied the death of Hannaniah in the same year.

And it came to pass. Jeremiah had also prophesied that the captivity of Judah should be long contrary to Hannaniah who said Judah will be exiled for 2 years.

Reasons for condemning false prophets

Prophets of Baal were still in existence. False prophets like Hannaniah had filled the people of Israel with unrealistic hopes of peace yet Judah was to be destroyed. Recall the characteristics of true and false prophets. False prophets did not condemn sin. They prophesied for money and in the process misled people away from Yahweh. False prophets prophesied from their dreams, imaginations and not from God. They gave people false hopes. They intended to make themselves popular, with the King and the people.

  1. iv) Human sacrifice.

The people offered human sacrifice to idols and oppressed each other. Human sacrifice is the act of killing human beings for a religious or spiritual purpose. The Israelites copied this activity from the Canaanites. Children were believed to be the best sacrifice since people believed they would get great favors from the deities. Some kings such as Ahaz and Manasseh sacrificed their sons to idols. Jeremiah condemned human sacrifice.

Reasons for condemning human sacrifice

Human sacrifice was an act of idolatry. It indicated infidelity of the Israelites to the one true God. It demonstrated Israel’s disrespect for the sacred gift of life. It showed their lack of knowledge of the true nature of Yahweh. Human sacrifice defiled the land for life is in the blood. Blood speaks hence the land was crying at this vengeance. God did not ask for human sacrifices. Human sacrifice was a sign of lack of love of God and love for one another. It is a demonstration of disregard for human life. Only God has the right to take away life. In our country people kill each other every day especially on the road. Why do we do this?

  1. Idolatry

Idolatry is the worship of many gods. Idols are images made by people for worship. The Israelites practiced syncretism, which we said was the worship of Yahweh and idols. The people of Israel were worshipping Baal the Queen of heaven, sun, moon, stars, and also Yahweh (Jer 8:2).

Idols were placed even in Yahweh’s sacred places. The temple was defiled by idols. This temple is unclean. Jeremiah condemned it. He told the people of Israel that “{they have forsaken the fountain of living waters (GOD) and hewn out for themselves broken cisterns (IDOLs) that can hold no water” (Jer 2: 11-13).

Why did Jeremiah condemn idolatry? Read Jer 2: 20, 2:1- 3, 5: 7- 8.

Idolatry is like adultery and prostitution. It defiled people and was a sign of lack of faith in Yahweh. It defiled the land. Idolatry led to divine judgment and punishment.

People of Judah abandoned Yahweh the ‘Husband’ and chased “lovers” the idols and deities The Israelites (Northern kingdom) had been punished before and yet Judah did not learn from them. By worshipping idols Judah broke the covenant and their relationship with God. And unless the people of Judah repented, they would be punished; as there is only one true living God to be worshipped and obeyed. Is there idolatry among Christians today’s

  1. Other evils condemned by Jeremiah

People of Judah trusted that the temple was secure, holy and cannot be destroyed. Jeremiah denounced this false belief about the temple. He warned them that God would destroy the temple because of the many evils committed in it. The temple of God had become a ‘den of robbers’ and human sacrifices.

People of Judah committed other evils such as hypocrisy (Jer 7; 9-10); social injustice (adultery, murder), stubbornness, and rebellion.

  1. The temple

Temple is a place of worship. The temple of Israelites was in Jerusalem. It signified the presence of God among his people. The Israelites believed God could never destroy or allow destruction of the temple.

Jeremiah stood at the gates of the temple court during Jehuiakim’s reign, and Judah that God would destroy the temple and send them to exile. He urged them to repent and turn back to God. King Josiah heard the message of Jeremiah and he reformed religious practices in Judah.

Vii. Religions reforms carried out by King Josiah

This topic is not clearly spelt out in the syllabus. It is based on the book of Deuteronomy. The scroll was discovered in the temple during repairs.

Josiah ordered the repair of the temple of God. He led a national ceremony to review the covenant. He destroyed idols and altars associated with the worship of foreign deities throughout Judah. He eliminated all the priests associated with the worship of false deities. He celebrated Passover in

Jerusalem. The successors of King Josiah did not follow his example. They became corrupt. They persecuted the prophets of God. They listened to false prophets. They promoted idolatry and child sacrifice.

Viii. The Relevance of Jeremiah’s teachings to Christians today.

Christians should denounce hypocrisy in the society today. They should not result to witchcraft, divination and sorcery. They should be upright, and worship God in sincerity. They are to proclaim divine judgment upon those who refuse to obey God’s will, just like Jeremiah declared God’s judgment upon Judah due to the sins of the people.

Like Jeremiah, Christians should speak out against modern idols like love of money, power, and obsession with sports, sex, and drugs among other evils. Christians should condemn destruction of human life, violence; murder, abortion, parents killing their own children, genocide and exploitation of the poor.

Christians should be aware of the existence of false teachings and prophecies. They should pray for God’s guidance and wisdom to be able to distinguish truth from false teaching. Christians have a responsibility to correct one another and call on sinners to repent.

Christians are to be trustworthy, upright, and merciful to the poor and condemn dishonesty. They should practice justice in their relationship with others; preach against disobedience, stubbornness and pray to God to help them overcome these vices.


Q: Read these review questions and answer before reading answers>

  1. Why was Jeremiah reluctant to accept the call?
  2. Which evils / sins did Jeremiah Condemn?
  3. Give examples of idol worship in Kenya.
  4. Describe Jeremiahs temple sermon


  1. Jeremiah felt inadequate because he was too young to work for God. He argued that he did not know how to speak. He was afraid. He knew he would face stiff opposition from the people of Judah. The message of God’s judgments is difficult to deliver.
  2. Read text again and look for evils and sins that Jeremiah condemned.
  3. Examples of idol worship in Kenya are many. Some people including Christians practice witchcraft, sorcery, personality cults and hero worship of religions and political leaders. Other people, worship money, materialism, media, and sports obsession with power / status Sexual immorality – devil worship
  4. Jeremiahs temple sermon. Read text again.


Read Jeremiah 5:12-18, 6;1-30, 7:30, 8:1-17, 10: 17-25, 15;1-9, 17:1-13, 25: 1-38

  1. Jeremiah teachings

. Sin was internalized in the hearts of the people of Judah. God punished them. God punishes people because of their unfaithfulness. Punishment is a penalty, for an offence or a crime committed.

But in punishing people, God is a just judge. He does not punish people without a reason irrespective of their status.

God judges people by looking into their hearts. Divine judgment is for a group. For example, the people of Judah were punished as a group. However God searches each person’s heart and judges accordingly.

God executes His judgment by means of political and historical events. Divine punishments are in forms of natural disasters like drought, famine, and epidemics. God’s punishment is unavoidable, and inescapable. Judah took the best option by surrendering to the Babylonians.

The purpose for God’s judgment is to correct the sinner. God gave his people a chance to repent before he punished them. God’s judgment is universal. It is not limited to one nation. God punished the neighbors of Judah who at that time were Egypt, Moab, Ammon, and Babylon. God’s punishment is severe compared to that of venomous snakes that bite the people of Judah. God’s judgment is not necessarily a punishment from God for one’s sins. It is symbolic. The sufferings of Jeremiah were symbolic of the life of the people of Judah.

What can we learn about God’s punishments? Are modern disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes, landslides, epidemics, bomb blasts, civil wars, forest fires, rebellions in schools a sign of God’s judgment and punishment? What do you think?

  1. Symbolic acts related to judgment and punishment

People use several methods to convey messages to each other. We use songs, advertisements, dramas, and stories by the fireside, in novels, the Internet, and magazines to communicate messages about children, adults, society, political leaders, poverty and many others. The prophets used: (1). Oracles;

‘Thus says the Lord’; (2) Allegories (3) Parables (4) Songs (5) Symbolic Visions (6) Symbolic actions and (7) dramatized messages

Symbolic acts of Jeremiah

  1. The linen waist cloth (Jer.13)
  2. Jeremiah’s personal life (Jer.16)

iii. Jeremiah’s visit to a potter (Jer.18)

  1. The broken earthen flask (Jer.19)
  2. The symbolic vision of 2 baskets of figs (Jer.24)
  3. The wearing of the yoke
  4. The Linen Waist Cloth. Read Jer.13

Jeremiah was instructed by God to buy a linen waistcloth and wear it around his waist without dipping it in water. He was told to hide the cloth in a hole near river Euphrates. Afterwards he was told to take the cloth. He found it spoilt for wearing.

-Significance. The liner material was for priestly garments in Israel. It symbolized Israel’s holiness. The unwashed cloth represented Judah’s sinful pride. Israel used to cling close to God but now Israel / Judah were spoilt, rebellious, and arrogant and pursued foreign gods. God was going to destroy them if they did not repent. The spoilt linen waistcloth was a symbol for future God’s action.

  1. Jeremiah’s personal Life. Read Jer 16.

His life was a symbolic act. He was told not to marry, have children, and not attend funerals, social gatherings, feasts and wedding parties.

-Significance. The personal life of Jeremiah was one of suffering. This signified the suffering that the people of Judah would be subjected to. Judah was punished because of their wickedness and rebellion.

Jeremiah’s loneliness signified the perishing of families through the sword, famine and disease. It would be a time of terror for the families of Judah. Their normal social life of feasting, merry making would come to an end. There would be no weddings and no one to bury the dead. Hence Jeremiah was forbidden from mourning for the dead.

iii. Jeremiah’s at the potter’s house (Jer.18)

Jeremiah was told to go to a potter’s house. He found the potter making a clay vessel. “Whenever a piece of pottery turned out imperfect, he would take the clay and make it into something else (18: 4).

The potter made a better pot, more perfect vessel than the spoilt one.

-Significance. God is the potter. People of Judah are the clay. As the potter destroyed to vessel, God intended to destroy Judah because of their wickedness and mould those who repented into better people. God was going to shape them into faithful people. God’s judgment was to be a corrective punishment.

  1. The broken clay Jar. Read Jer.19.

God told Jeremiah to buy a clay flask

He then took some elders and priests to the valley of Valley of Hinnon. He delivered a sermon condemning the people of Judah for their idolatry and other evils. Jeremiah then broke the clay jar in their presence and announced to them that Yahweh would destroy Jerusalem and Judah as Jeremiah had destroyed the jar.

-Significance. The kings, priests and prophets of Judah would be shattered like the clay flask because of their sins. Sine, they brutally sacrificed their children; they are to suffer horrifying experiences at the hand of their enemies. They shall suffer starvation and turn into cannibals; eating their own children and neighbors (v.9).

Broken pieces of a clay pot cannot be molded. No one was to escape judgment. However there is hope after punishment.

  1. Two Baskets of Figs (Jer.24).

Jeremiah received the visions, after the deportation and exile of leading citizens of Judah and Israel to Babylon. Two baskets of figs were placed in front of the temple. One basket had very good figs, which had ripened. The other basket had bad figs unfit for human consumption.

-Significance. The basket of good figs signified the first exile. God would renew their hearts; use them to fulfill his promises to the Israelites. He would recreate them to a new people. The basket of the bad figs represented people living in Jerusalem and Egypt. Since they were not exiled they had a self-righteous attitude. They thought that God spared them because they were truthful but it was not so. They shall also be destroyed through famine, and diseases. This vision signifies hope and restoration of the Israelites.

  1. Jeremiah Wears an Ox Yoke. Read Jer. 27.

When Zedekiah son of Josiah became the ruler of Judah,

Jeremiah was instructed by God “to make” for himself “a yoke out of leather straps and wooden crossbars” and to wear it around his neck (27: 2). Jeremiah moved around in the yoke for quite some time in public.

He was also given a message for ambassadors of kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Sidon, who were coming to see King Zedekiah in Jerusalem. They were to give God’s message to their kings. The message was to “submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia; his son, and his grandson. Any nation that accepted this message shall not suffer; but if any nation.Will not submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia rule, God will punish that nation by war, starvation and disease” Read Jer 27:6-8. The message for king Zedekiah was to surrender to the Babylonian rule and live, if he resists he would perish.

The message for priests and people of Judah was not to be misled by the false prophets. The temple would be destroyed. Its treasures looted by the Babylonians.

Significance. The yoke represented the Babylonians rule. Nebuchadnezzar was used by God to bring judgment to all nations. Yahweh is a universal God and his judgment is universal. Sinners are punished regardless of their origin or nation. Those who repent are spared.

Reflection questions

Q: Why did God inspire Jeremiah to use symbolic acts to convey his message?


Israelites were stubborn. Jeremiah acts were reminders to Judah to turn to God and stop idolatry and all the sins they were committing. They had drifted too far from God. False prophets were prophesying lies to them. The people of Judah were expected to meditate on these acts and understand God’s will for them and see the seriousness of the matter. This was also to imprint a lasting impression in their minds.

  1. Which methods do pastors / priests use to communicate God’s message to Christians today?
  2. The sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah

Read Jer 11, 12, 17:14 – 18, 18:18- 23, 20: 1 – 6, 27, 37, and 38.

Jeremiah sufferings were experiences that were painful; physically and emotionally. In suffering there is loss and grief. Lamentations are strong emotional expressions of pain and grief. Jeremiah suffered in the following ways

  1. Rejection by his own family and relatives. They plotted to kill him. This grieved Jeremiah.
  2. Anathoth planned to kill him but God protected Jeremiah. He pronounced God’s judgment upon them

III. Jeremiah suffered when he was accused falsely. He was accused of blasphemy after the temple sermon. He foretold the destruction of the temple, just like Jesus Christ in the New Testament did.

  1. He was accused of treachery. That he was planning to leave Jerusalem and join the Babylonians. This led to Jeremiah being arrested and put in an underground jail.
  2. Jeremiah received death threats because of speaking for God. King Jehoiakim plotted to kill prophet

Uriah. The prophet escaped to Egypt but he was followed to Egypt, arrested and killed by king Jehoiakim. The king had planned to accuse Jeremiah of Uriah death. Ahikam and other elders defended Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 26)

  1. Jeremiah suffered loneliness and solitude. He felt emotional anguish and complained to God of his orders not to marry; neither attend social gathering and celebrations. This made Jeremiah lonely since he did not participate in the family life, political life, community activities and religious life.

VII. Jeremiah experienced inner personal struggle due to his love for his own people He did not want to see them suffer but the people were stubborn Read Jer. 12:1 – 6, 15:10 – 21, and 27.

VIII. Jeremiah’s prophesying judgment caused him emotional pain and agony. His messages were mainly of severe judgment and punishment.

  1. He went through a spiritual struggle in his relationship with God. He felt frustrations, doubts, self-pity and despair. He wondered why God made him suffer. Why do the wicked prosper? He also wondered why God was taking too long to fulfill his prophecies. God assured him that Judah would be punished and promised to give Jeremiah victory against his enemies.
  2. Jeremiah suffered physical assault, imprisonment and an attempt on his life. Pashhur, the chief temple priest ordered beating and chaining of Jeremiah to the temple gate. Jeremiah prophesied that Pashshur’s name would change to ‘terror everywhere’.
  3. King Zedekiah released Jeremiah from the cell to his court. Jeremiah continued to prophecy and was thrown in a muddy cistern. Here he was rescued by Ebed- melech an Ethiopian Eunuch. The court officials had accused him of not being patriotic. Jeremiah remained in jail until the Babylonians overthrew Jerusalem. He did not change his prophecies. Read Jer. 10:1 – 6, 27, 37, and 38.

Is there relevance of the sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah to Christians today? From his suffering

Christians learn to be ready to face opposition and rejection from their own family members and relatives for the sake of the gospel. Christians should be prepared to suffer persecution for the Lord.

Christians should be ready to make sacrifices for the sake of God. Be ready to lead humble lives.

Jeremiah’s open confessions to God encourage Christians to be open to God. Christians should let God avenge for them just like Jeremiah prayed to God to revenge his enemies. Christians should not lose hope in times of difficulty. Christians learn that tribulations strengthen their faith. Christians should learn to deal with negative emotions such as self – pity, grief and trust God. Jeremiah was told by God to repent of his negative utterances. Christians should do the same as they are assured of divine security and protection against their persecutors.


A covenant is an agreement. Another word for covenant is testament. Jeremiah taught that there would be a new covenant between God and Israel. This new covenant would be different from the Old (Sinai) covenant. The new covenant would renew the broken relationship between God and his people.

  1. The New Covenant. In the new covenant, the law would be written in the hearts of the people unlike the old covenant where the law was written on stone tablets. Every individual would know God personally and not through prophets as it was during times of Jeremiah and previous one. Each person would be responsible for his/her sins. God would forgive sins and remember them no more. The new covenant would be established after God’s punishment of Israel and establishing a’ new Israel’, a ‘new people’ of God.

The new covenant would establish a new beginning. People would forget the first Exodus. The second Exodus would be deliverance and restoration from Babylon. God would initiate the new covenant as he did with the first. It would be a new covenant of peace, unity, prosperity, Joy and gladness. In the new covenant a ‘righteous branch’ would be established. The new covenant would be everlasting. It would not be broken again.

  1. Differences between the old covenant and the new covenant

Old Covenant New Covenant

  1. Based on law Based on faith
  2. Word written on stone tablets Word written in people’s hearts
  3. God known personally by a few priests prophets and prophets. Each to person to know God personally
  4. Covenant broken when people sinned Everlasting covenant
  5. Sins punished collectively Sins punished individually
  6. 1st Exodus from Egypt 2nd Exodus from Babylon
  7. Sealed by animal sacrifice Sealed by Jesus sacrifice (blood)

What are the similarities between the old and the new covenant? Jesus fulfilled the new covenant. Jesus is the ‘righteous branch’ from the lineage of David. In the last supper, before his death, Jesus said ‘this cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. Read Luke, 22:20. The death and resurrection of Jesus marks the new covenant. Jesus spoke of forgiveness of sins of humanity Jesus forgave people’s sins, for example, the sinful woman in Simon’s house (Luke7: 36 – 50). In the new covenant the law would be written in people’s hearts. Jesus summarized the Mosaic Law into ‘love God with all your heart, mind, and strength and love your neighbor as you love yourself. Jesus established the kingdom of God as a new community of God’s people based on faith (the Christians).

Jesus fulfilled the new covenant prophecies The teachings of Jeremiah new covenant of hope and restoration is fulfilled in Jesus Christ and the new testament church (Christians) Heb.8:7 – 12.


  1. Symbolic acts related to hope and restoration.

The symbolic acts were one hope and restore. Hope is to expect something that is desired; while to restore is to bring back as nearly as possible the former or original state or condition. The symbolic acts were 5 in number.

The first symbolic act was a vision of 2 baskets of figs. We have discussed it. Refer to the symbolic act related to judgment.

The second symbolic act was Jeremiah buying a field. God instructed Jeremiah to buy a field from his cousin Hanamel of Anathoth. Jeremiah bought the field for 17 cents of silver. He then handed the title deed and open copy to Baruch. Baruch was told to keep the title deed and the copy in an earthen vessel for preservation for a long time. Jeremiah prophesied the restoration of the exiles to their homeland.

The significance of this symbolic act is the assurance of restoration of Judah and Israel after suffering.

People will be restored to their homeland. After 70 years people of Judah would reconstruct their homes, cultivate their land, and own property (Jer 32; 1 -15).

-The third symbolic act was Jeremiah’ letter to the Jews in Babylonia. Jeremiah wrote to the people of Judah a letter of encouragement while in exile. They were to settle down, build houses, marry and have children, live in peace with the Babylonians. They were to pray for the welfare of their masters and to ignore false prophets who lied to them about the safety of Jerusalem and a quick return. God would restore them back to their land after 70 years of exile were over. The exiles were to trust in God and not give up (Jer.29).

The four symbolic acts was a wooden ox yoke. The yoke represented captivity and suffering of Jews in exile. It was also a sign of hope if the people of Judah were willing to submit to the Babylonian rule. God would restore them back to their land. Their yoke would be broken and they would be set free.

The fifth symbolic act was the visit to the porter’s house

  1. The fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the Israelites (Jer.39)

Jeremiah’s prophecy came to pass. Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians in the ninth year of King Zedekiah in 587BC. The Babylonians conquered Jerusalem and seized it. King Zedekiah fled but; he was captured by the Babylonians army. He witnessed the execution of his sons. His eyes were gauged out. He was then taken in chains to captivity in Babylon. Solomon’s temple was looted and destroyed. Villages,

Jerusalem and the palace were destroyed and burnt down. The priests, court officials, army officials, people in the upper class, craftsmen were executed. City people were taken to Babylon as captives. The poor, aged and a few people were left behind and given vineyards to farm.

Nebuchadnezzar’s army was brutal to the Israelites. Many were killed. A few like Ebed – Melech were spared as prophesied by Jeremiah (he had rescued him from the well). Nebuchadnezzar ordered the release of Jeremiah. He was treated well

Judah became a province of Babylon. Gedaliah was appointed governor of Judah. He stayed at Mizpah, the headquarters of Judah. Ishmael killed Gedaliah. Later Jeremiah was forced to go to Egypt by the Israelites. Jeremiah died in Egypt, an old man, and still faithful to his call.


Jeremiah was rejected by his relatives, friends and the Israelites. In the New Testament, Jesus was rejected in his hometown of Nazareth: and by the religious leaders of Israel. Jeremiah compared himself to a lamb being led to the slaughter. Jesus in the New Testament is referred to as a lamb led to the slaughter. Jeremiah’s suffering symbolizes divine judgment over Judah. However Jesus sufferings were to bring salvation to all mankind. Both Jeremiah and Jesus experienced spiritual agony. Jeremiah experience agony and felt left alone by God. Jesus too felt agony when praying in the garden of Gethsemane and when on the cross.

Jeremiah taught that God is universal and a just judge. The gospel of Jesus is universal and everybody is judged according to his or her faith in God. Jeremiah and Jesus accused the Israelites of turning the temple into a “den of robbers”. Jeremiah and Jesus were both accused of blasphemy. Both challenged false beliefs about the temple. Both Jeremiah and Jesus spoke of the coming judgment of God.

The new covenant was fulfilled in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ Jeremiah spoke of hope and restoration. Jesus gives hope of eternal life in the New Testament.

  1. Relationship of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christian today.

Christians are to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ. They are empowered by the Holy Spirit to endure suffering and to grow spiritually. Christians like Jeremiah face false prophets who speak in Jesus name.

Christians are to be watchful and obey Yahweh

Like Jeremiah Christians should call people to repentance. The new covenant is fulfilled in Christian’s individual relationship with God. Christians are the new people, the new Israel as prophesied by Jeremiah. His teachings reveal that God is universal. Christians are from all corners of the earth.

Christians should prepare for divine judgment by practicing love, righteousness, self-denial, and faith in God.

Revision exercise

  1. List the evils that Jeremiah condemned
  2. What are some of the evils that church leaders condemn today?
  3. Explain the symbolism used during the call of prophet Jeremiah
  4. What did Jeremiah teach about the new covenant?
  5. Why did prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites worshipped?
  6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in jeremiah7: 1-15
  7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would use on Judah?
  8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon
  9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgment and punishment as demonstrated by prophet Jeremiah
  10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christians today
  11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of Jesus?



The book of Nehemiah is a historical writing. Nehemiah is a record of his deep dependence on God and his frequent prayer to God. Nehemiah means “Yahweh has comforted. Nehemiah was the son of Hacaliah of Judah. He was not a prophet. He was exiled to Babylon. Persians captured Babylon and improved the living condition of the Israelites. They were allowed religious freedom but had to pay tributes.


  1. Political and historical background.

 From 587 BC to 538 BC, Israelites were in exile. In 538 B.C., the first group of Israelites was set free and returned to Judah. Cyrus the Great, of Persia ruled his subjects through governors. They were led out of Babylon by Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel who became the first governor of Judah.

Some Jews remained in Babylon. They were referred to as Jews in Diaspora or dispersion. Other Jews remained in other lands including Egypt, and Mediterranean lands Nehemiah. He was a cupbearer in the palace of the Persian king Artaxerxes I. He later became a governor of Judah. Even after the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, Israelites remained subjects of the Persian king.

The Wall of Jerusalem was important to Israel and Judah. The Wall represented a sense of pride, ownership, privacy, independence and Security. The Greeks conquered the Persians; who were later conquered by Romans.

  1. Social background

The Jews in foreign lands retained their Jewish way of life. The land of Israel was partly occupied by foreigners. The foreign cultures of neighboring rulers influenced Israelites who returned. They for example, intermarried with foreigners, a custom that God did not allow. Israelites were not to intermarry with other people according to the Mosaic Law. In spite of this however, Jews maintained their separated identity. Some of the foreigners despised Jews. The wealthy Jews oppressed the poor Jews. In Jerusalem there was starvation. Nehemiah condemned oppression of the poor.

  1. Religious background

Jews returned to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem and the altar of God for sacrifices. While in exile, Jews were allowed by the Babylonian king to practice their religion. They worshipped Yahweh, practiced circumcision, obeyed dietary laws and observed the Sabbath. The exiles could not however observe all the religious practices for example offering animal sacrifices.

Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem to rebuild it’s the wall. The temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt, cleared and dedicated to God.

Prayers by Nehemiah and modern Christians

Nehemiah prayed, mourned, and fasted. He prayed often and for all actions, keeping God’s law, forgiveness, punishments, human relations, Jerusalem, good works, contributions and offerings, observance of Sabbath day, and preparing duty allocations for priests and Levites. .

  1. When he learnt about the suffering of Jews who remained in Judah and the ruined state of Jerusalem; He prayed for forgiveness on behalf of his people (Neh.4: 1 – 11).
  2. Making a request to King Artaxerxes to be permitted to return to Judah (Neh.2: 4 –

iii. When his enemies ridiculed the Jews and planned to discourage them from rebuilding the wall of

Jerusalem. Tobiah in particular said that the wall was poorly constructed and it could be brought down by; a fox jumping on it. Nehemiah reque-sted God to punish the enemies who were mocking temple builders (Neh.4: 4 – 5).

  1. When he learnt that his enemies were conspiring to attack Jerusalem to stop the construction work, he prayed and organized people to provide a 24-hour guard of the wall (Neh.4: 7 – 9).
  2. For his good work, he prayed for his works (Neh 5:19).
  3. When his enemies plotted to destroy him, he prayed God for strength and courage to overcome his enemies (Neh 6: 19).

vii. When Shemaih attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple claiming that there was a plot to kill him, Nehemiah prayed and asked God to punish his enemies (Neh 6:14).

viii. When he organized contributions for Levites and musicians; and people to distribute them. He asked God to remember his work for the house of God (Neh 13:14).

  1. He stopped trade on the Sabbath day, and organized rest on the Sabbath day. He warned traders against violating the Sabbath law. He asked Lord to remember him for these actions (Neh.13: 22).
  2. Nehemiah prayed for punishment of the son of Joiada. The son of Joiada had brought disgrace to the priest hood by marrying a foreigner, the daughter of Sanballat from the town of Beth Horon, (Neh 13:29). after cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence, he forbade mixed marriages
  3. He prepared duty regulations for priests and Levites. He allocated them duties. He then organized Jews to bring offerings for maintaining priests and Levites. He prayed God to remember his work for the temple, priests and Levites (Neh 13:31).
  4. Importance of prayer in Christian life

Through prayers, Christians express their faith in God and praise God for his greatness, goodness, holiness, and majesty. Prayer brings Christians closer to God; it strengthens their relationship with God.

Through prayer Christians request for their needs, blessings, success, good health, and protection among other requests.

Prayers help Christians to listen to God and to seek his will. Prayer is a source of strength. It gives Christians courage to face and overcome life’s challenges. Christians seek guidance, comfort and support in times of trials. In prayer, Christians intercede for the sick, poor, hungry, prisoners, friends, family and community. The communal / public prayers unite Christians together. Through prayers, Christians ask for forgiveness and the ability to forgive others. In prayers, Christians trust that God listens and answers their prayers.





A leader is someone charged with the responsibility of guiding, contro-lling, directing and leading others. Nehemiah had many leadership qualities. These were: –

1) God fearing man. Nehemiah feared God, relied and depended on God.

2) Prayerfulness – he prayed constantly before and after making decisions.

3) Courageous – He displayed courage even when his life was in danger

4) Hard work and commitment. He was dedicated to the rebuilding of the wall of the temple and Jerusalem.

5) Team spirit – he was a team leader, motivating people to work.

6) He had planning and organizational skills

7) He was visionary

He had compassion for the needy especially the poor, Levites and priests

9) He was patriotic loved his country

10) Wisdom. He made wise decisions at the right time.

11) He led by example, a role model

12) He was honest and sincere in his prayers

13) He was shrewd and impartial

14) His trusted God absolutely.

15) He was decisive. He told God about decisions he had made and asked for their recognition.

16) He was humble. He asked to be allowed to return to Jerusalem and oversee the repair of its wall and temple.

16) He believed in law and punishment of wrong doers. He asked God to punish lawbreakers especially Jews who married foreigners.

  1. Relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to Christians today

Christians should copy all the leadership qualities of Nehemiah. They should trust in God and seek his guidance in all their activities and needs.

  1. Christians should live a life of prayer
  2. Christians should be courageous, be ready to defend the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  3. Christians should be dedicated to their work. Work diligently and honestly
  4. Christians should set realistic goals and organize their activities.
  5. Christians should seek wisdom from God to be able to choose appropriate activities to attain their visions.
  6. Christians should care for the needy and be compassionate to all
  7. Christians should be patriotic and ready to defend their country against internal / external threats.
  8. Christians should need to fight for the rights of the helpless children, widows, orphans, and aged.
  9. Christians should seek God first, view themselves as servants of God and be good role models.


The wall of Jerusalem was destroyed when Babylonians conquered Judah. After finishing the wall, he dedicated it to the Lord. Dedication is to devote something in honor of a person held dear or to set aside something for some special purpose.

  1. Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem. The rebuilt wall had several gates with different names. The gates were the entrances to Jerusalem. Their names were Dung gate, Potsherd gate, Fountain gate, Water gate, Horse gate, East gate, Sheep gate, Fish gate, Watch gate and Ephraim gate. Knowing the names of the gates may not be necessary but its good information.
  2. Problems faced by Nehemiah.

When Nehemiah was building the wall of Jerusalem, he faced many challenges. There was lack of cooperation by the nobles of Tekoa. They did not want to do manual work at first but they later repented. Nehemiah faced opposition from enemies such as. Sanballat, and Tobiah, the Arab who tried to thwart the progress of Nehemiah’s work. As he built Jerusalem, the rich oppressed the poor. This was worsened by famine

The priests misused the temple and the offerings. For example, temple duties had been abandoned. The Levites were not getting their share of the offerings and the Sabbath was violated. There was laxity in observance of the Sabbath. This was a challenge to Nehemiah because Sabbath day should be kept holy.

There was a lot of foreign influence because of the conquests by several foreign armies, intermarriages and interactions between Jews, neighboring people and foreigners. Marriages in particular threatened the identity of the Israelites as a nation. Worse still Priests married to foreign women defiled the priesthood according to Nehemiah. Because of these assimilations of Jews through marriages, Nehemiah knew that Israel and Judah would eventually be lost as God’s nation. Because of his opposition to these interactions, Nehemiah received death threats.

  1. Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (NEH. 12:27 – 47)

The rebuilt wall was dedicated to God. The wall restored security and prestige of God’s people. The wall of Jerusalem was set-aside for God in a solemn ceremony. There was a dedication ceremony in which people sung with symbols, harps, lyres, trumpets and other instruments. The priests and Levites purified themselves.

The people led by Ezra, Nehemiah, the priests and other leaders of Judah walked around the wall. They divided themselves into two groups. One group walked from the right side and the other group from the left side and converged at the temple. Sacrifices were offered and people rejoiced. Some men were appointed to be in charge of the storehouses; where tithes and first fruits of harvest were kept.

  1. Relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today

Christians should expect opposition, as did Nehemiah. They should not be afraid of being ridiculed, mocked and despised. If it happens, Christians should persevere in God’s work. They should put their trust in God like Nehemiah did.

They should also fight for the welfare of the disadvantaged groups and not exploit them. They have a moral obligation to condemn injustice and take practical steps to help solve problems that afflict individuals, groups, nations, and society. They should be in the forefront fighting HIV/ AIDS and drug abuse.

Christians should be on the lookout for external influence that may corrupt morals of the society and the church. They should learn that leadership involves suffering, persecution, and sacrifices. This is foregoing personal interests for the sake of the kingdom of God.


  1. Stages of the renewal of the covenant.

Israelites were the chosen people of God. They had suffered many hardships. There was therefore a need for the renewal of the covenant between God and Israelites. The ceremony to renewal the covenant was held in Jerusalem and was led by Ezra, the Levites and other religious leaders. The renewal of the covenant can be discussed in 3 main stages:

-Stage 1. A great public assembly was held in the square of Jerusalem inside the water gate. God’s law was read and expounded to the people. The people of Israel praised and worshipped God. They cried and grieved. They were sad because they realized that they had failed to observe the Mosaic Law. They were instructed to go and celebrate, as it was a holy day of God and an occasion for joy not sorrows.

-State 2. The feast of booths/tabernacle was celebrated for 7 days. It was a reminder of the days in the wilderness when the Israelites dwelt in tents. The Law of Moses was read each day during the celebrations.

-Stage 3. There was a public confession of sin. People fasted, prayed and praised God. The public confession was followed by the renewal of the covenant vows and a promise to keep God’s law in future.

Ezra’s prayer closed the celebrations. In his prayer, he recalled God’s acts of creation. He then recounted the history of the Israelites. He mentioned the previous acts of God; where the Lord had demonstrated His love and mercy for the Israelites. He then confessed the sins of their ancestors and the present Israelites. These were the sins of rebellion and disobedience.

  1. Promises and vows made by Israelites during the renewal of the covenant. Israelites promised God that they would:

 Live according to God’s law, by obeying all his commands and requirements.

 Stop intermarrying with foreigners living in their land.

Cancel debts every 7th year

Contribute annually towards the temple expenses to ensure that the house of God was not neglected.

Provide sacrifices and offerings for the temple and arrange for provision of wood for burnt sacrifices according to the law.

Offer first fruits of their harvest and dedicate the first born and flocks as required by the law.

 Pay for their tithes as required by the law.

Which lessons can we learn from the renewal of the covenant? God is good, loving, merciful, and faithful to his promises. God forgives all people and we are all sinners. We fail in our moral obligation to God and to one another.

Since we are sinners, we should repent our sins and strive to live according to God’s law. Christians are to encourage one another as well as others to repent as it brings about reconciliation with God and with one another.

Christians should be forgiving and avoid situations that lead them to sin

  1. Check from form 1 work, this information.
  2. Outline Nehemiah’s final reforms
  3. What is a covenant?
  4. What are the components of a covenant?
  5. Discuss how the covenant was renewed
  6. List examples of covenants in the Old Testament and modern life.
  7. Explain what Christians can learn from the experiences of Nehemiah
  8. Compare or relate the teachings from Nehemiah’s exemplary life to the teaching of St. Luke’s Gospel and Christian life today.



Changes for improvement are known as reforms, which are political, economical, social, religious or a combination of any of them. Examples of reformers are King David, Prophet Elijah, and Martin Luther King among others.

-Nehemiah. After building the wall, Nehemiah went back to King Artaxerxes II who if you remember had given permission to go to Jerusalem and build its destroyed perimeter wall. Later he returned to

Jerusalem and carried out these reforms.

  1. Reforms by Nehemiah. We have discussed reforms, which Nehemiah carried out during his stay in Judah, where he was the governor (Neh 5:14). The major reforms were:

i Rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem as well as its gates.

  1. Cleansing of the temple: Nehemiah threw him out Tobiah a foreigner who was living in the temple quarters.

iii. Reinstatement of the Levites and other temple workers. Levites, and musicians had left the temple duties to work in their farms to earn a livelihood. They were supposed to work in the temple and be supported by member contributions. Nehemiah organised Jews to make offerings and tithes to support temple workers. With these contributions, Nehemiah reinstated and redeployed Levites, priests, musicians and other temple workers.

  1. Reform of the Sabbath observance. The Israelites were told by the Lord to work for 6 days and rest on the Sabbath day. The Jews started working on the Sabbath day. The merchants camped outside waiting for the reopening of the gates of the temple to do business. When Nehemiah started rebuilding Jerusalem, he ordered closure of the gates of Jerusalem from the eve of Sabbath to the end of the Sabbath.

v Separations from foreigners (Neh.13: 23 – 30). It was against God’s law to marry foreigners. Nehemiah cursed the men who had married foreign wives. He beat Jews, pulled their hair and forced them to take oaths that neither they, nor their sons nor daughters shall intermarry.

  1. Purification of priesthood and the office of the Levites. Nehemiah cleansed the priesthood. He sent away Eliashib, a grandson of the High Priest Joshua, because he had given Tobiah a foreigner, a room in the temple.



  1. Comparing teachings of Nehemiah and St. Luke’s Gospel
  2. Nehemiah lived a prayerful life while St. Luke’s gospel emphasizes importance of prayer. Jesus taught the role of prayer in Christianity.
  3. Nehemiah fasted, St. Luke’s gospel records that Jesus fasted.

iii. Nehemiah prayed for forgiveness of sinful Jews. We see Jesus in St. Luke’s gospel being a leader who prayed for the forgiveness of his enemies.

  1. Nehemiah cared for the needy. Jesus showed compassion to the needy and taught his followers to follow His example.
  2. Nehemiah condemned evil so did Jesus
  3. Nehemiah is seen as a reformer of the Mosaic Law. In St Luke Gospel, Jesus was also a reformer. He insisted on inner holiness.

vii. Nehemiah cleansed the temple of traders so did Jesus.

viii. Nehemiah was very strict on the Sabbath observance. St. Luke’s gospel teaches that Jesus is lord over Sabbath. He healed and “Worked” on Sabbath.

  1. Nehemiah was opposed to racial intermarriages; St. Luke Gospel was dedicated to Theophilus, a gentile convert
  2. Christianity kingdom of God in St. Luke’s gospel is for all, not just the Jews.
  3. Nehemiah had good leadership skills and wisdom. These are demonstrated in St Luke Gospel.
  4. Relating Nehemiah’s teachings to Christian life today

i Prayers and fasting are fundamental to Christians just like they were to Nehemiah who led a prayerful life.

  1. Nehemiah’s example teaches Christians to face all forms of opposition with courage, wisdom, and firmness

iii. The good leadership qualities of Nehemiah are relevant to Christians and they are to be emulated.

  1. Nehemiah cared for the needy. Christians should learn to give spiritual food, physical food and clothing to the needy, orphans, widows.
  2. As Nehemiah renewed the covenant, Christians should seek spiritual renewal publicly and privately.

They should seek for communal as well as individual forgiveness.

  1. Nehemiah cleansing the temple and organized an inventory for temple contributions, offerings and tithes. He also appointed key people to look after temple contributions and pay Levites and priests.

Christians should learn to use the church buildings and contributions rightly

vii. Nehemiah was guided by the Law of Moses and land just like Christians are guided by the scriptures (Bible) and the law of the nation. The Bible is the source and basis of Christian principles.

Revision questions

  1. Describe the political background of Nehemiah
  2. Describe the social background to the vocation of Nehemiah
  3. Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah
  4. Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed
  5. State occasions when Christians pray
  6. What is the importance of prayer in Christian life?
  7. Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism
  8. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today
  9. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today
  10. Explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation
  11. Explain the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant
  12. State the promises the Israelites made during the renewal of the covenant

Study activities. Visit a church or your church and observe the display of the gifts of the Holy Spirit by the members. Study the books of Amos, Jeremiah and Nehemiah beforehand.

Form three answers.


Qn a. Explain the meaning of the Pentecost.

Pentecost means fifty days after the harvest.

It was one of the religious festivals celebrated by Israelites annually.

In the Old Testament, the day of the Pentecost was celebrated during the wheat harvest in order to thank god for the blessing of the harvest.

Israelites came from all over the world and gathered in Jerusalem for this celebration.

In the New Testament, the meaning of the festival changed. It was celebrated to commemorate the coming of the Holy Spirit upon God’s people as they gathered in the upper room.

Qn b. Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. (Acts 2: 1-40) OR (narrate the events that took place on the day of Pentecost).

Disciples gathered in a room.

Sounds came from heaven like a rush of mighty wind and filled the house.

There appeared tongues of fire.

The tongues of fire were distributed on each one of them.

They were filled with the Holy Spirit.

They were speaking in foreign languages and tongues.

Those who were observing them were amazed, as they could not understand what they were saying.

They accused them of being drunk

Peter stood up and explained that they were not drunk as it was too early in the day to get drunk.

He explained how they were filled with the Holy Spirit as prophesied by Prophet Joel.

He told them that it was Jesus whom they had rejected and crucified who had sent them the Holy Spirit.

The people asked peter what they could do.

Peter told them to repent and be baptized.

On that day about 3000 people were added to the church.

Qn c. write down five teachings we learn about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day of Pentecost.

Jesus was from Nazareth

He had a divine nature or was son of God

He had a human nature

He was attested by God to work miracles and wonders through Jesus.

Jesus’ death/ crucifixion was according to God’s plan

God raised Jesus from the dead

Jesus conquered death

The death and resurrection of Jesus fulfils the prophecy of David

Jesus was a descendant of David

The Holy Spirit was from Jesus Christ as he had promised.

God has made Jesus Christ both lord and Christ/ messiah

Jesus ascended into heaven. He is exalted at the right hand of God

The risen Christ is a source if hope or salvation to many sinners/crippled/the dead

Qn d. What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader for the apostolic church?

He was a man of great faith

He was a good orator

He dedicated his life to Jesus

He was filled with the Holy Spirit

He could perform miracles or wonders

He was an eye- witness of the ministry of Jesus Christ.

He was full of wisdom and knowledge i.e. Anania’s and Saphira’s case

Qn e. what lessons can Christians learn from the events of the day of Pentecost

They learn that Jesus always honors and keeps his promises e.g. he promised to send the Holy Spirit and did it

Baptism in the Holy Spirit is very important for every believer

That obedience yields immediate results i.e. the disciples obeyed Jesus by testifying in Jerusalem and they received the Holy Spirit.

It is important for believers to meet for fellowship. The disciples did this and they received the Holy


That the Holy Spirit enables Christians to declare the gospel with boldness

It was the plan of God that Jesus was crucified

Jesus indeed rose from the dead as peter witnessed

Jesus was the son of God

Qn f. state the teachings of Jesus on the Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit comes from the father

The Holy Spirit will comfort disciples

The Holy Spirit will abide with believers forever. He was to teach the world and reveal the truth about God

The Holy Spirit would guide them into all truth and make them understand or know more about Jesus

The percolate i.e. comforter/make strong/counselor who give advice

He was to help them attain eternal life. If it was necessary for him to die and return to the father so that Holy Spirit will be sent to them. It was to replace Jesus as a counselor and an advocate

He was to give the disciples authority to forgive or not to forgive

The spirit would remind them all that Jesus had taught them

The holy spirit will reprove the world of sin, righteousness and judgment

He would glorify Jesus amongst the believers

He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the whole world

He was to strengthen disciples as a wonderful counselor

He was to continue with the work of Jesus as a witness

Qn g. what is the role if the holy spirit according to Jesus?

He comforts believers

He teaches believers all things

He bring into remembrance all that Jesus taught his disciples

The holy spirit would convict the world of their sins and lead them to righteousness

He will guide the believers in all the truth

He will glorify Christ and teach about him

He will tell of the things to come in the future

He would not speak on his own authority but would speak only what he hears from the father

He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the world

He will counsel believers because he knows the mind of God

He will enable believers know the perfect will of God

Qn h. what is the role of the Holy Spirit in the believers (or Christians or the church)

He enables believers to preach with power

He comforts believers

He guides believers in all truth

He gives believers boldness to witness about Jesus

He enables Christians to produce the fruit of the spirit

He washes sacrifices and justifies the believer in the name of Jesus

He teaches believers all things

He enables Christians to access God the father and son in prayer

He enables Christians talk in tongues in worship

He enables Christians to perform miracles in the name of Jesus

He enables Christians to declare sins and transgressions of others

Qn i. Outline the fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:6-26)

Love showing compassion to one another

Joy deep happiness when one has a good relationship with God

Peace being at peace with all people

Patience being to wait in difficulties

Kindness being caring and helpful towards others

Goodness seeking to do best in their lives

Faithfulness having confidence in God

Gentleness being calm and avoiding violence

Self-control have strong control over their emotions

Qn j. state the criteria for discerning of the spiritual gifts

The gift must glorify Jesus so that one who is under the influence of th Holy Spirit will be able to recognize Jesus as lord and savior

The gifts must not call Jesus accursed

The test of love. The gift must be accompanied with a good or true frit. To discover whether or not the person who has the Holy Spirit must bear the fruits of the spirit

 One who is user the influence if the Holy Spirit is known by his or her way of life, He/she will act and behave in accordance with the teachings of Jesus.

Doctrinal test for example, prophecy should always in agreement with the scripture because the Holy

Spirit cannot contradict what is written

 Loyalty or conformity to Jesus. The gift doesn’t envy other believers

The gift must be subject to the word of God

The true gift will be guided by principles of sincerity and honesty

The true gift will humbly submit to God

The gift should encourage the growth of the church and edify her

Qn k. List down the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

The gift of wisdom (a deep understanding of who God is an his purpose for human life)

The gift of knowledge that is the basic understanding of the truth about Jesus Christ

The gift of faith that refers to the confidence or truth in God’s inspiration and help in undertaking difficult tasks

The gift of healing: the power to heal all types of sicknesses

The gift to perform all types of miracles including healing

The gift of prophecy: that is the ability to expound on the scriptures and foretell its future implications

The gift of distinguishing gifts: the ability to tell the difference between gifts that come from the spirit and those that are not

The gift of speaking in tongues: the ability to understand and interpret tongues

Lastly the gift of love, which is the greatest of all the spiritual gifts.

Qn l. Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts.

Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts. He said that love is patient and kind

It’s not jealous or boastful. It is not arrogant or rude or conceited. It does not hold grudges or ill mannered or selfish

It does not insist on its own way. It is not irritable or resentful

It does not rejoice at wrong doings but rejoices in the truth

Love bears, believes, hopes and endures all things

It is ready to deep firm its faith, hope and its patience

Love does not succumb to pressure but always perseveres

He justified that love is the greatest gift of the spiritual gifts because in prayer, the gift of tongues becomes nothing but meaningful when accompanied by love (charity)

On faith, Paul says that even if one has faith that can move mountains but has no love, he is nothing

Charity or generosity including sacrificing own life is nothing without love

Qn m. Explain how the Holy Spirit is manifested in the church today

Through dynamic, power, bold and vigorous teaching of the gospel

Through speaking in tongues in many evangelical churches

Through the gift of healing many people are healed as they are prayed for

Through the gift of love, Christians show mercy to all members of the society regardless of their race, sex or age (helping the poor in the society)

Through the gift of prophecy some believers give proper guidance to the church

Through the gift of discernment of spirits believers are able to tell the type of spirit that is in operation

Through the gift of faith, believers have been able to accomplish tasks that seem rather impossible

Some Christians through the Holy Spirit are able to withstand a persecution to the point of death

The Holy Spirit convicts sinners and makes them confess their sins

Through the Holy Spirit many Christians see heavenly visions and dreams

The fear of the lord is upon many evangelical groups through the Holy Spirit

In some evangelical gatherings, there are many supernatural things during worship e.g. shaking and swaying

It is also manifested through prayer at individual or congregational levels

Through decision making in church i.e. solving problems and issues in church

Through singing and dancing or music

Through offertory and alms or sadaka

Holding fellowship meetings, bible study and reading the bible

Celebration of sacraments e.g. Eucharist and lord’s supper

Bringing new converts to the church

Pastoral cave and counseling It is manifested in Ecumenism: working together of the churches

Writing Christian literature e. g. books, pamphlets and magazines

Enabling Christians to confess their sins and reconciliation meetings

Education and giving instructions

Qn n: State ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit have been abused in the church today.

Cheating that one has a certain gift of the Holy Spirit

Commercialization of the gifts. People are asked to pay money before being prayed for or being healed

False interpretation of the bible, prophecy or predicting the future

Unscrupulous Christians may impart demoniac powers or innocent faithful

Some Christians who possess the gifts of the Holy Spirit develop pride or selfishness or superiority complex

Wrong use of the gifts of the Holy Spirit where faithful get into ecstasy or trance which may lead to injuries

Distinguishing oneself as a person with a special call e.g. preacher with intention of exploiting others or situations


Qn a. Write down the terms used in the New Testament to refer to believers in Christ

The people of God

The body of Christ

The bride of Christ

The vine and the branches

The Assembly of God


The people of the way (followers of the way) other terms

Followers of Christ

New Israel


The sheep

The royal church


Royal race

Royal priest hood

Holy nation

The children of light


Brothers and sisters in Christ

Qn b. identify five causes of disunity in the early church

 The question on the inclusion of the gentiles in the church. Some Jewish Christians were not ready to accept gentile Christians in the church unless they underwent circumcision

There was negligence of the widows in the distribution of food

Disagreement between and among leaders e.g. Paul and Barnabas, Peter and Paul

Groupings in the church where some Christians owed loyalty to individuals. They said that they belonged to individuals like Apollo others Peter and others Paul

Question of immorality, where some Christians did not live according to the teachings of Christ

 The problem of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians became arrogant because they were more gifted than others

Different interpretations of the doctrines e.g. resurrection, sin, salvation, Christology, Holy Spirit, dressing

Behavior during the Lord’s Supper

Christians took others to a pagan rule of law

Question of the resurrection of the body

Question of celibacy

Question of incest sexual immorality

Different approaches to common life between Christians communities in Jerusalem and Antioch

Qn c. identify factors, which cause disunity among Christians today

Selfishness or greed for money by some Christians

Rivalry or competition for leadership positions or greed for power

Misinterpretation by some Christians of the work of the Holy Spirit

Arrogance or pride by some Christians

Corruption in the church

Failure by some Christians to live according to the law of God or their failure to live exemplary

Lack of concern by some Christians about the plight of others

Misinterpretation of the bible or doctrinal differences

Misuse of church funds or power by some leaders

Lack of transparency and accountability in running church affairs

The emergence of charismatic movements in the church creates a situation where some Christians think that they are more spiritual or holier l than others

Political interference where Christians find themselves in different political camps

 Sexism where women are not involved in decision-making. Women are under represented

Discrimination against the youth or churches ignoring the youth in running the church

Tribalism where Christians are divided along tribal lines

International differences

Qn d. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it difficult to harmoniously live together

Unfaithfulness or promiscuity

Misuse of family resources or lack of resources

Child abuse e.g. beating, raping, incest or favourism

Alcoholism or drug use and abuse

Separation of family members e.g. due to wage labor or education

Denial of conjugal rights

Sickness e.g. HIV/AIDs, impotence, barrenness or cancer

Child delinquency

Lack of tolerance or forgiveness or presence of cruelty

Greed for wealth or self esteemed prestige or professionalism

Religious fanaticism or denominational differences

Traditional or cultural inhabitation or western cultural influences or permissive

Generation gap

Qn e. explain how the church strengthen family relationships today

Through guidance and counseling and mediation

Hold seminars, conferences for couples, children the youth through publications on Christian living e.g. magazines, books or pamphlets

Use of mass media e.g. televisions Radios or videos

Through offering pastoral care in homes or house to house visits

Giving financial support to the needy families

Praying for families

Through preaching, teaching and condemning vices

Offering employment to the jobless

Providing vocational training skills


Q1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy

Prophet: Refers to one who speaks God’s message. He is God’s spokesman. His message includes predictions of the future.

Prophecy: Is the message spoken by a prophet. Oracles spoken by prophets

Q2. List the five categories of true prophets

  1. i) Major Prophets.
  • These include Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel.
  • They are called Major Prophets because the books are long and contain clearly written messages.
  • They bear the names of the writers.
  1. ii) Minor Prophets
  • These refer to 12 books that are short and contain less important than those in major books e.g. Amos,

Hosea, Joel, Obadiah through to Malachi.

iii) Canonical prophets

  • Both the major and minor prophets are together referred to as canonical prophets.
  1. iv) The early prophets
  • They belonged to guilds or schools.
  • They lived together in communities under a chief prophet. Elijah and Elisha are examples.
  • These are those who served in places of worship e.g. at Dan, Bethuel)
  • They were called cultic prophets because they were associated with religious activities in shrines.
  • They traveled around together delivering oracles.
  1. v) Cultic prophets
  • They worked side by side with priests and said prayers especially people’s petition to Yahweh.

Q3. State the difference between true and false prophets

True Prophets false prophets

They were called by God to be His spokesmen Not called by God.

Were obedient to God

Not obedient to Him

Believed in one God

Could worship other gods and led people into immorality.

They were prayerful.

Spoke and acted with authority from God.

No authority from God

They led holy lives.

Were immoral e.g. believed in false gods.

Spoke God’s word

Spoke their opinion

Suffered physically and psychologically because of speaking the truth

Run away suffering

Spoke the truth


Did not ask for pay.

Asked for pay

Spoke form a common tradition based on the Mosaic Law.

Did not have any reference.

Q4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?

Some were called through visions or dreams e.g. Amos and Samuel.

Others were called through other prophets e.g. Elisha.

Words or message came into their minds.

Through prophetic symbolic actions e.g. Jeremiah

Through common objects – an object becoming a significant sign of God’s power and activities Jer.1:11-13.

Through prayers

Q5. Outline the similarities and differences between the Old Testament prophets and the Traditional African Ones

  1. a) Similarities:

Both possessed spiritual powers.

Both were mediators between people and a Supreme Being.

Both performed the role of healing people physically and spiritually (miracle).

They received calls mainly through visions/dreams, which were considered supernatural.

Were both expected to be people of integrity and obedient to religious codes.

Gave warnings and solutions to their people in case they offended the Supreme Being.

Foretold the future

  1. b) Differences:

Old Testament Tradition African

Received their message from God Received their message from spirits and ancestors

Appointed by God


Rejected by people

Respected and feared in society

Prophecy went to other nations

Confined in tribal community

Prophecies preserved in writing

Passed on orally

Believe and worship of one God

Believe in god spirits

Performed miracles

Q6. What is the relevant of prophets to Christians today?

Through reading their prophecies, Christians get to know the will of God.

Jesus who is the cornerstone of Christianity is stressed throughout prophecy – since Abraham.

Prophecy has helped many to be preachers (i.e. prophecy = preaching).

Christians learn to be faithful to Yahweh just like the Old Testament prophets.

They too learn to be holy and prayerful like them e.g. Jeremiah.

Prophets encouraged justice e.g. Elijah, Christians should do the same.

As prophets, Christians should provide hope to the people in times of suffering.

They learn that they can face suffering just like the prophets did e.g. Jeremiah e.g. persecution, rejection etc.

They should condemn sin like the prophets.

The writings of the prophets strengthen their faith when they need them.


Q1. List the visions that Amos saw

He saw a swarm of locusts. Amos 7:1-3

He saw a great fire. Amos 7:4-6

The plumb line/crooked wall. Amos 7:7-8

Basket of ripe fruits Amos 8:1-3

The destruction of the temple Amos 9:1-4

Q2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings

Sexual immorality (Amos 2:17)

  • Amos condemned temple prostitution – 23:17.
  • Father and son were going to the same woman.
  • They copied these from the Canaanite pagans, which was wrong and unfaithful to Yahweh.

Slavery: (Amos 2:6)

The righteous, the rich made the poor slaves. This is because they borrowed from the rich and could not repay so they made them work like slaves and treated them harshly. Some sold them for a pair of sandals. This was breaking God’s laws, which guided them on how to treat their poor fellow Israelites.

Idolatry: Amos 5:26

Amos accused them for breaking God’s covenant by worshipping other gods.

Cheating in Business: He condemned the following:

  • Merchants used false measures
  • They overcharged the poor
  • Sold goods of low quality
  • They sold poor people for not paying debts
  • They too charged high interest rates

Bribery and Corruption Ex. 23:8

  • He condemned elders who were unjust and corrupt.
  • They took bribes and grew rich from heavy levies from innocent people in law courts.

Greed and excessive luxury

  • He condemned women of Samaria who drink and lived in luxury when there were poor needy people.

Breaking God’s law on garments secured for pledges

  • God gave Israelites items that were to be given out to the creditors as guarantees for the goods borrowed e.g. Millstones for grinding, were to be taken and returned in the evening because they were used daily.

Robbery and Violence

  • Poor were being oppressed and violated.

Self – Indulgence and false sense of security

  • Leaders thought God could not punish them because they were a chosen race.
  • But Amos told them they would be attacked.

Q3. Give reasons why Prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel

It broke the covenant way of life.

It was against the 10 commandments, which directed the Israelites to worship one God.

It was a sign of disobedience to God.

It promoted immorality e.g. temple prostitution.

The worship of God belittled and degraded God.

It promoted falsehood in the society.

Religion became commercialized.

Led to false prophecy

People got concerned with external behavior and not internal.

Q4. List evils in society today that Amos would condemn


Bribery and corruption

Robbery with violence

Dishonesty in business

Grabbing of public land and property


Oppression of the poor e.g. underpayment

Immorality e.g. prostitution


Q1. List evils that Jeremiah condemned

  • Human sacrifice
  • Hypocrisy in worship
  • Dishonesty in business
  • Defilement of the temple – temple prostitution
  • Social injustice
  • Idolatry
  • False prophecy
  • Necromancy
  • Exploitation of the poor

Q2. What are some of the evils that the church leaders condemn today?

  • Hypocrisy/pretence in worship
  • Murder/suicide/abortion/genocide
  • Exploitation of the poor/robbery
  • Dishonesty
  • False prophets
  • Human sacrifices among devil worshippers
  • Sexual immorality e.g. adultery

Q3. Explain the symbolisms used during the call of Prophet Jeremiah

God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This was to symbolize that God was the source of the message.

Jeremiah was to deliver.

A branch of an almond tree that was base – God was watching to see the fulfillment of the message he gave to Jeremiah.

A pot of boiling facing away from the north and about to tilt toward Judah. God would use a nation from the North to bring judgment on the people of Judah because of their wickedness.

A fortified city. A bronze wall and an iron pillar. God was going to protect him even though he was going to meet opposition.

To uproot and pull down, to destroy and overthrow. God would pass judgment on the nation of Judah and other nations.

To build and to plant. There was still hope of the restoration of people of Judah after exile.

Q4. What did Jeremiah teach about t the New Covenant?

The new covenant was to be written in people’s hearts.

The covenant was to be made between God and the remnant community after exile.

The people were to have a personal knowledge of God in the new covenant.

God was to forgive their sin and remember them no more.

Each individual was responsible for his own sins.

The new covenant was to be initiated by God.

The new covenant was to last forever.

It was as a result in the emergence of a new people of God or new Israel.

Q5. Why did Prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites worshipped?

They broke God’s commands e.g. the 1st and do not worship other gods – they worshipped idols.

They practiced hypocrisy i.e. they were concerned with external religious observance while their hearts were far from God.

They forgot the saving history of God and worshipped other gods e.g. Asherah.

They practiced syncretism i.e. they worshipped both Yahweh and foreign Gods.

They listened to false prophets and rejected God’s prophets e.g. Jeremiah. They even killed some.

They dishonored the sanctity of human life by offering human sacrifice.

They neglected the disadvantaged (widows & orphans).

They were dishonest in business and deceitful to one another.

They narrowed themselves in necromancy, divination and magic.

They rebelled against God by breaking the covenant relationship.

Q6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in Jeremiah 7:1-15

God commanded prophet Jeremiah to speak in the temple.

It was a response to the people of Israel to stop understanding religion through the practice of syncretism and immorality.

At the gate to the temple, Jeremiah proclaimed that the people of Judah had to change their way of life and stick to the covenant they made with God.

They had to stop defiling the temple of placing idols in it.

They had to stop committing social injustices and as murderer/exploitation of the weak, orphans widows and foreigners.

The practice of human sacrifice was murder and displeasing to God.

Hypocrisy was bad.

The Israelites believed that the temple was secured from destruction because of its holiness was not true.

God would destroy Israelites/Jerusalem through invasion of a foreign nation.

If the people stopped their evil ways, God would not bring judgment upon them.

God would destroy the temple of Jerusalem and send the people to exile.

Q7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would use on Judah?

The punishment would be in form of a foreign body that God use to conquer Judah.

They would be attacked and their city destroyed.

People would suffer and die due to their sins.

The punishment would in form of drought. This would affect people and animals.

God’s punishment would come through death, diseases and sword.

Their punishment would be a defeat inflicted to them by Babylonian.

The punishment would be the loss of their land to a foreign nation and their enslavement.

God would allow the enemy to destroy Jerusalem and take survivors to captivity.

Q8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon (Jer. 29)

He encouraged the Israelites in Babylon to build houses and live in them.

Plant gardens and eat their produce.

Marry and increase

Pray for their ruler

Not to worship false gods

Not to be cheated by false prophets

To obey their masters.

Worship one God


Q9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgment and punishment as demonstrated by Prophet


Linen waist cloth – the rotten/useless linen cloth that had been hidden in the caves and lift to rot stood for Israel’s state of being useless before the eyes of God. A sign that they had soiled their priesthood.

Jeremiah was asked not to marry the solitary life symbolized solitude in exile.

Two baskets of fig fruits – the bad fruits signified that the bad people would be punished.

Wooden yoke – he was asked to carry a wooden yoke and work around with it signifying suffering in Babylon – exile.

Breaking an earthly flask – destruction of the temple

 Visit to a potter whereby the potter destroyed a pot due to poor shape and remolded it, God would remold Israel to a shape befitting them.

Not to comfort anybody – these would be sorrow and suffering, no help while in exile.


Q10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christian’s life today

Christians are called to preach God’s gospel as Jeremiah did.

Christians should accept suffering like Jeremiah did.

They should learn to distinguish between false and true prophets.

Like Jeremiah, they should condemn evil in society.

They have a duty to call people to repentance as Jeremiah did.

Christians should be good examples to the people by living, holy and upright lives as Jeremiah did.

People should be able to know the nature of God through the lives of Christians.

They should believe they are the new community as prophesied by Jeremiah in the new covenant.

Q11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of Jesus?

Both were rejected by their own relatives and communities.

Both experienced opposition from political and religious authorities.

Both prophesied the destruction of the temple.

Both lamented over the stubbornness of the people of Jerusalem.

Both predicted divine judgment and punishment in Israel.

Jeremiah predicted the new covenant that is fulfilled by Jesus.

Prophet Nehemiah

Qn 1 Describe the political background of Nehemiah

He worked during the Babylonian exile which lasted between 589- 538 BC

During his vacation, Israelites were oppressed politically

The Israelites hoped that God would soon liberate them from this bondage

In 538 BC the Babylonians were conquered by Cyrus the great king of Persia

In 538 BC king Cyrus allowed Israelites to return to Judah

King Cyrus gave the Israelites a decree to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem

In 538BC the first exile under Zebu Babel

Joshua the priest departed from Babylon and started to rebuild alters of God

Under the guidance of prophets Haggai and Zachariah the temple was rebuilt and dedicated

The second exile arrived under prophet Ezra; after king Artaxerxes authorized Ezra to re establish Israelites religious and moral expectations of the Mosaic Law.

Nehemiah was a servant the king Artaxerxes palace. The king authorized him to go and rebuild the walls of Jerusalem

Amidst all opposition from Samaritan, Nehemiah accomplished the reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem in 52 days. He then dedicated the walls to God.

This restored the sense of political pride in Israel. However the Israelites remained subjected to the

Persians and continued to pay tribute. The Persians were later overthrown by Romans who ruled the entire region until the time of the birth of Jesus

Qn 2 Describe the social background to the vacation of Nehemiah

Israelites men married foreign women

Children spoke different languages from their mothers

Hebrew language almost became extinct

Nehemiah condemned mixed marriages and even banned them

Exiles who returned home were humiliated by foreigners who partially occupied their land

The Samaritans threatened Nehemiah’s life as the rebuilt walls of Jerusalem

Rich Jews oppressed the poor e.g. they would confiscate their property for failure to repay debts

Qn 3 Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah

While in exile the Babylonians allowed the Jews to continue with their religious lives

The exiles became the period of purification

They returned with a new zeal to worship God; they rebuilt the altar under Zerubbabel for offering burnt offerings to God

The returnees built the temple of Jerusalem under Haggai and Zachariah and dedicated to god by Ezra

Nehemiah embarked on rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem amidst opposition in 52 days the wall was complete. Consequently, Jerusalem once more became the centre of worship for Israel. Idolatry was not allowed again in Israel after the exile.

The temple of Jerusalem was dedicated to Yahweh. The Israelites renewed their covenant with God under prophet and priest Ezra. Nehemiah carried out various religious reforms

Qn 4 Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed

When he heard about the suffering of his fellow Jews back in Judah

When he learned about the state of ruin of Jerusalem and king Atarterxes to request him to allow him go back to Judah

When his enemies e.g. Tobiah and Samballat ridiculed him as he reconstructed the walls of Jerusalem

When he learned of his enemies’ conspiracy to attack Jerusalem

When his enemies conspired to destroy his life/ kill him

When Shemiah attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple as hi life was in danger

When he cleansed and arranged the temple as a house of God

When he warned the people of Judah against violating the Sabbath law

After chasing away the son in law of Samballat from the temple

After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence

Qn 5 State occasions when Christians pray

When they are faced with diverse persecutions. They ask God to protect them

When they don’t understand certain scriptures. They ask God to give them revelation

When they are faced with certain difficulties of life. They ask God to help them

When the nation is facing political crisis. They pray for peace

When they feel inadequate and sinful. They ask God to perform certain miracles for them e.g. healing

Qn 6 what is the importance of prayer in Christian life?

Prayer helps Christians to praise God, give thanks to him and to repent

It helps Christians to pour out their hearts to God

It helps Christians to rely to God for emotional and mental stability. It helps put our problems to God

It strengthens Christians. It gives them determination and character to remain steadfast in their responsibilities despite the challenges

Through prayer a Christian can request to stand against personal attacks and temptations

Prayer is the source of courage and strength in times of tribulations

It brings one closer to God, we use it to praise God, use it to ask for God’s supply of their needs, used to ask for forgiveness and promotes important virtues e.g. persistence and patience and promotes unity among different communities

Qn 6 Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism

He was a tune patriot i.e. after talking to the Jews and getting the news of distribution of Jerusalem, he was forced to go back home.

Reliance to God- He totally relied on God and to his call i.e. in most cases he prayed before carrying out an activity

Devoted/ talented- As a cupbearer to the emperor he was an educated, talented and trustworthy young man

Visionary- He had a vision and he shared it with enthusiasm to inspire Jerusalem leaders to rebuild the wall


He took the initiative to persuade the emperor to put things right

Excelled organizer-He carefully organized the rebuilding process. He organized how the wall of

Jerusalem was to be built in steps

Careful planner-He carefully examined and inspected the wall before starting the work

People’s representative- He was a proper representative of his people in Israel. He had a sense of responsibility to his community

Shrewd-He avoided the meetings organized by his opposer and overlooked the abuses placed on him

Impartial- He appointed men of integrity and God fearing to keep guard over Jerusalem

Selfless and kind-He had the skill of solving problems. He hence cancelled all debts that people had

Homogenous- He employed different strategies to counteract his opposer

Qn7. explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today

A Christian should use his/her present position to serve God

Christians should acknowledge God as their source of power and giver of gifts

A leader should appoint people who are trustworthy and honest to help him/ her in ruling the country

God answers our prayers as a result of asking others for help

A Christian leader should keep his /her plans a secret until it matures to make an announcement

Christians should share their visions with others the way Nehemiah did

Leaders should take care of the needy in the society

As a Christian one could be lured to temptations; the way Nehemiah was opposed we should be ready to resist temptations

Christians should be ready to help in solving problems in the society Christians should act as role models by carrying out spiritual activities with the truth and helping in work after starting projects.

Qn 8.Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians

They should not exploit the needy and disadvantaged

They should defend the rights of the weak and use their work place, family and friends

They should ask God to protect them from the mischief of their enemies

That they should pray to God to give them guidance in their endeavors

That they should persevere in all difficulties as Nehemiah did

They should condemn the injustices in the society

They should know that leadership involves challenges and difficulties

They should be practically involved in problem solving e.g. HIV/AIDs scourge

Qn 9 Explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation

Oppression of the poor Jews by the rich Jews e.g. demanded high interests on borrowed money

Great opposition from the enemies they tried to frustrate his/her efforts to build the walls of


Threat to his own life- His adversaries wanted to kill him

Lack of co-operation and support from the Jews- They refused to work with him on the wall project

Excessive foreign influence in Israel- Intermarriage brought about foreign influence which threatened

to extinct the Jew culture and language

Violation of the Sabbath laws- Israelites went on to do their daily chores on the Sabbath day

Abuse of the temple- Eliaship housed Tobias the heathen and God’s enemies

Misuse of offerings- The levies were denied their share of sacrificial offerings as required by the law

Qn 10-Describe the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant

Ezra the priest read the book of the covenant and explained the meaning of the Law of Moses. The

Israelites listened carefully and their lives changed. They responded Amen, amen

Celebration of the feast of shelters- After reading the scriptures, they realized that they had not been celebrating the feast of shelters. This was to remember their deliverance from Egypt. They were also to think about God’s protection and guidance

The Israelites confessed of their sins as they learnt that they had not been following God’s commandments. Nehemiah was devoted to confession of national sin and prayers to God’s grace

Recital of God’s dealings with Israel- They recital of God’s mighty acts is done in this. They remembered their history and this renewed God’s grace and power in them

A renewed covenant sealed. The covenant was renewed in writing and the leaders put seals

The binding agreement that people and God was done by the Israelites joining hands

Qn 11 State the promises that Israelites made during the renewal of the covenant

That every seventh year, they would cancel debts according to the Mosaic Laws

That they should observe God’s commandments and live according to his laws

That they would offer the first of their harvests as required by Torah

That they would dedicate their first-born sons to God

That they will not intermarry with foreigners at all

That they will not buy corn or anything else on the Sabbath day

That they will remit their arrival temple expenses to ensure that God’s house was okay

That they will provide sacrifices and offerings at the temple

That they will pay their tithes according to the law

Group study activities

  1. Read and study the book of Luke by
  2. Dividing up the chapters in the book of Luke among the members of the class and let every group present a summary of the chapters allocated to them.
  3. Check out movies about the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ but note that your study according to the syllabus is based on St. Luke’s gospel.





Form four work deals with social issues in society. We shall compare the issues in the following communities – The Traditional African Society Christian community and the contemporary one. By the end of it the student should be able to understand the meaning of life and live to its fullest.




Form four work covers contemporary issues in a Christian’s life. You are advised to read newspapers, listen to radio news, watch television news and current affairs and any other relevant news source. Work in twos. Give yourself topics to study and then give a presentation to your partner or co learner.

Ethics are moral principles, which influence a person’s behavior. Ethics are defined as the systematic study of human actions and behavior. We use ethics to judge, determine and assess the right and wrong of human behavior. Morals refer to human character, which is the inclination to behave in one-way or another. Ethics is the study of morals and they determine and influence personal and societal behavior. Christian ethics is the study of human conduct or behavior from a Christian point of view.

  1. Basis of Christian ethics. Sources of Christian’s ethics: –
  2. The bible, teachings of Jesus Christ
  3. Human reason and experience
  4. Natural law
  5. The Christian community – the church
  6. Situation ethics
  7. Authoritative Christian literature – based on the bible
  8. Gods revelation – through prophets
  9. Human reason. These are internal thoughts that guide us when we are making decisions and taking actions. We use our minds and thoughts when confronted by situations. They also rely on internal thoughts in their life experiences.

Internal guiding thoughts have many parts. One is our Conscience. This is our inner self that tells us and lets us know what is right and wrong. There are four types of consciences; doubtful conscience, sensitive conscience, certain conscience and perplexed conscience.

For a Christian, rights and wrongs are in the Bible. God gave the Law of Moses to Israelites. Jesus came and explained the Old Testament and taught new scriptures in the New Testament. These teachings, which we have covered from Form one to three, explain very clearly what is right and wrong. When doubtful of the morality of an action, Christian consults the Bible to know if a decision is right or wrong.

  1. Human Experiences: – these are internal and external guides

When confronted by situations, Christians use their minds i.e. human reason and their life experiences in making decisions.

They rely on internal guides, (Human reason) and experience (external guides)

Internal guides

(i) Conscience: – Mind, aspect of knowing right or wrong. When right, there’s’ approval when wrong it registers guilt. When doubtful of the morality of an action we should not do it if conscience is perplexed then make us decision. A decision should be based on a certain conscience.

Types of conscience

– Doubtful conscience

– Sensitive conscience

– Certain conscience

– Perplexed conscience

  1. One can also make decisions based on knowledge and free will

To make a decision one should have

– Facts about the act, its aims, circumstances.

– One should be free to perform

A decision ought to be thoughtful


  1. Intuition: inner feeling, insight

It’s an internal moral sense to do good or avoid evil. Intuition is important in situations that require quick and immediate that requires quick and immediate action.

  1. Feelings

Feelings are subjective e.g. it feels good to do so this, hence will do…” it can be dangerous to make decisions purely based on feelings especially in marriage friendship etc.

Eternal guides


Guides here include authoritative persons such as parents, teachers, police, civil leaders’ philosophers, and religious leaders.

Rules from secular, religions, and African traditional culture are part of external guides.

The bible

The bible, quoted in the text but now out of text guides Christian behavior. God communicates to his people through the Bible. The Bible offers answers to questions in relation to the life of a Christian.

Today, there are ethical issues not found in the bible e.g. HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health rights, contraceptives, abortion, globalization, cloning, environmental degradation, genetically modified foods, terrorism, international trade etc. this gives reason and other sources / factors are basis of Christian ethics in addition to the bible.

Moral principles in the bible

– They are mostly found in the teachings of Jesus and the Ten Commandments, sermon on the mountain

– Christians are also encouraged to have


– The virtues encouraged include generosity, love, kindness, faithfulness, patience, humility, peace, mercy, loyalty etc.

Christian community – church

Church leadership can make decisions, which touch on their followers. They guide people on ethical issues e.g. politics, land, justice, abortion, contraception etc.

Church organizations give rules on those conducts of their members.

Natural law

– The awareness that one has to choose good and avoid evil

– If one studies human nature and reflects upon it he/she will discover natural laws of human behavior

– Natural law, natural rights such as right to education, life own property many etc. are incorporated into the constitution of any nation.

– The constitution then guides the behavior of list citizens; Christians being citizens of a country are guided in their behavior by the constitution.

Situation ethics

One should reason out the rightness or wrongness of an act. The rightness or wrongness of an act depends on its uniqueness, the circumstances

– Christians are warned against making decisions based on circumstances or the situation e.g. a pregnant student seeking abortion as the option so as to continue with education. God’s revelation

God reveals himself to people through prophets, natural events, the law, dreams and visions. Through such ways God guides Christian on how they should approach certain issues. God’s revelation does not contradict with the bible.

Revision questions

  1. What is the meaning of Christian ethics?
  2. What is the basis or source or foundation of Christian ethics?
  3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life








Christian approaches refer to how Christians view and handle issues of human sexuality, marriage and the family in accordance with Christians ethics. Through marriage, the family is formed.


  1. Human sexuality.

This is a sacred gift from God. It was given to Adam and Eve. Human sexuality is that which makes us male or female. It is our biological or physiological differences associated with the state of being male or female. It is part of our biological make up. Males and female have different body structures, features, appearances and biological characteristics. In terms of physical strength more men are stronger than females. Besides the biological make up, we have an emotional side, which includes our attitudes, and feelings. Females are said to be more emotional and talkative than males. Human sexuality is also in our brain and mind and it is what makes us human beings. If you look at animals they also have different physiological features based on sexual differen-ces.

  1. Christian teaching on human sexuality.

Males and females are God’s creation. Men and women were created for many reasons. These are (1) to be fruitful and to multiply; and (2) for companionship. In Genesis we learn that men and women share the image of God because God intended man and woman to play complementary roles and both are equal before God.

Sex in marriage is a sign of love and it is sacred. In marriage man / and woman become one flesh. Both of them have the ability to control their sexual desires. Christian teaching forbids: sex before marriage, adultery or unfaithfulness, and other unnatural sexual behaviors like lesbianism, homosexuality or being gay, and incest. God created human body and it is to be kept holy. Chastity is encouraged while unfaithfulness in marriage is discouraged. Husbands / wives are to respect one another and give to each other in mutual love.

  1. Traditional African understanding of human sexuality.

Human sexuality is highly valued in traditional African communities. It is understood in terms of marriage and parenthood. Procreation was the sole purpose of sex. Sex was to be practiced in marriage and it was regarded as another sacred duty.

Adultery was discouraged and offenders punished.

Irresponsible sexual relationships were forbidden. Virginity before marriage was highly valued. If a girl lost her virginity before marriage, she was treated with scorn and punishment. If a boy impregnating a girl, he was fined.

In traditional African society it was a taboo to discuss openly sex matters. Grandparents taught sex education to their grandchildren. Sex education was taught during initiation stages. Free mixing of girls and boys was not allowed except under supervision. Girls were married off immediately after initiation to avoid temptation of engaging in pre-marital sex. To reinforce self – discipline in relationships between the opposite sexes the African traditional society instilled the fear of supernatural curses through myths, marital status. Husbands and wives were expected to relate to each other, their parents, and in laws according to the community customs. Conflicts between a husband and a wife were resolved through intervention of relatives.

  1. Gender roles.

There are specific chores and duties for either male or female in African traditional societies. Roles were therefore according to gender. Boys went hunting, herding, while girls fetched firewood, and helped in cooking. At an early age, girls and boys would mix freely as they played together. Mature boys and girls however, were restricted from mixing freely witho-ut supervision by elders. But there was gender identification. The boys identified with their fathers and other male adults, while girls identified themselves with their mother and other female adults. Education. Children belonged to the community and not just to their biological parents. At the adolescent stage; 13 – 18 years education was given to the adolescents and intensified at initiation stage. Boys and girls were taught traditional rules and secrets of the society during initiation. Learning was informal. Knowledge was communicated through songs, stories and riddles among other forms of presentations. All adults acted as parents to the young ones.


Men were socialized to be superior, while women were socialized to accept their subordinate position and role. Everyone knew and accepted what he/she was culturally supposed to do.

Division of labor was based on sex. In the African communities, despite their differences, there were many common customary roles, rules, regulations, taboos and beliefs that governed the practices related to male – female relationships from early childhood to old age. These traditional African practices relating to male – female relationships existed at various levels. In all of them, man held superior positions when compared to those of women.


Old women and men were accorded respect. They were consulted for advice and counsel. Kinship system was emphasized.

  1. Christian teaching on male- female relationships.

We learn that the husband is the head of the house and should love his wife like Christ loved the church. Once a wife is loved, she should submit to her husband. We also learn that both male and female are equal and co – creators with God. Adam and Eve were created to complement each other. Likewise men and women should love each other. Jesus taught that each man should have one wife and vice versa. Once married, the husbands’ body belongs to the wife and hers belong to him. If that is the case, wife and husband should avoid immorality.

Males and females are to relate freely. But the youth are to avoid the passions of youth. These are sexual sins. There are no specific chores or duties for either male or female. Relationship between sexes should be governed by love, chastity, respect, self-control, and self-discipline. Parents are to love their children, while children are to obey and honor their parents. Parents are asked to bring up their children in a Godly way.


  1. Christian teaching on responsible human sexuality.

Christianity teaches us about responsible sexual behavior. Being respon-sible means that one is exercising self control or self-discipline in matters of sexual behavior. Self-discipline is necessary when we have a relationship with the opposite sex (Read, 1 Cor.7: 9 1 Peter 5:8). It is called responsible sexual behavior, which is obedience to God’s commands.

Christians promote healthy social relationship between boys and girls, men and women, and husbands and wives. Responsible sex is between male and female. Sexual intercourse is allowed only between married couples (1 Cor.7: 3 – 5). Married couples are obliged to be sexually faithful to one another

(Heb.13: 4) adultery is condemned (exodus 25:14). Relationship between a husband / wife should be one of respect faithfulness, love, care, mercy, submission, tolerance, and forgiveness

  1. Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behavior.

There is much irresponsible sexual behaviour.

They include among others all acts and forms of: perversion, misuse, and abuse of sex, incest, rape, fornication, adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism or gay, prostitution, concubine, masturbation, bestiality and child marriages among others. These irresponsible sexual behaviors are against God’s will for humanity. Christians are to shun irresponsible sexual behavior. This is because their bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit. Thus whatever Christians do with their bodies, it should be for the glory of God.

Let us now discuss in brief some of the irresponsible sexual behavior; beginning with

(I) Incest

-Which is a sexual relationship between people who are closely related by blood. For example, sex between a brother/sister, father / daughter. Incest is condemned in the Bible. It was punishable by death in the Old Testament. Read Leviticus 18:6 – 8.

  1. ii) Rape

. Rape cannot be justified and it is condemned in The Bible. Rape is an act of forcing another person to have sexual intercourse without his or her consent. It is sexual violence and a crime against humanity. It is also a denial, and a violation of human rights of the victims who are sexually assaulted.

Victims of rape include boys, men, girls, women, and babies especially girls.

Rape is an expression of hatred toward the opposite sex. In traditional African society rape was abhorred and culprits were punished by death. In Kenya rape is punishable by 20 years imprisonment.

Indecent assaults or sexual abuses such as touching a person of the opposite sex without their permission or use of vulgar language are both punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment.

iii. Fornication.

This is consensual sexual intercourse between unmarried people. It is condemned by both African and Christian teachings and punishment in African traditional society was by either payment of fines, stoning, and ritual cleansing. In the Old Testament, men were forced to marry the girl.

Jesus said that fornication was due to people’s evil thoughts. Abstinence for the youth is encouraged and preached.

Why do the youth engage in pre – marital sex? There are several reasons. Some of them are: sexual curiosity, proving manhood, human weakness, lack of self control, testing fertility, fear of being jilted / rejected; commercial sex for money; copying acts in the print and electronic media. Others reasons are frustrations, drug abuse, bribe to get a job, and permissiveness in the society.

  1. Adultery

– Is committed by adults who have extra marital affairs; between “married partner and another party”. Adultery is having sex outside marriage with a person with whom one is not married to.

Adultery is caused by lack of self – control, sexual dissatisfaction, and long periods of wife and husband separation, sexual dysfunction and vengeance by an initially faithful spouse who wants to be even with the unfaithful spouse.

  1. Prostitution.

This is the practice of giving sexual pleasure for money or other material benefits. A prostitute can either be male or female. Prostitutes are referred to as commercial – sex workers.

Why is there prostitution? There are factors leading to prostitution. These are economic reasons such as unemployment, poverty, rejection of a girl at home, drug abuse, stress, anger, anxiety, frustrations in the family and pornography. The church condemns prostitution because it defiles the body, which is a temple of the Holy Spirit. It’s sexual immorality. Read Gal 5: 19 – 21.

  1. Homosexuality/ Gay/ Lesbianism.

This is sex between people of the same sex for example; man and man (homosexuality), woman and woman (lesbianism). Homosexuality is a common practice in modern world. It is also a church problem. The Anglican Church in USA, and Canada have accepted homosexuality. The Anglican Church has gay bishops. African Anglican churches are opposing this practice.

What makes people prefer sex with the same sex? The Christian view is that homosexuality is a sign of a lack of Christian moral values. It may also be due to confinement in a prison and permissiveness in society. If it is allowed to continue, it shall disintegrate traditional African values. Because of its threat to God’s people, the Church condemns homosexuality. Other reasons for condemning it is because (1) God created a male and a female. Read, Genesis 1:28. Two, sex is sacred. Homosexuality is an unnatural relationship, which lowers human dignity. It does not provide sexual fulfillment (as traditionally).

Homosexuality is illegal in Kenya.



Vii. sexually transmitted Diseases (STDs)

There are many diseases passed from one person to the other through sex. These are gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes genitalis is, hepatitis B, Chlamydia, trichonomiasis, HIV/AIDS. Let’s discuss them one by one. HIV / AIDS, This is human immune deficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) condition. Syndrome refers to many symptoms. HIV is transmitted largely through sex with an infected partner; through blood transfusion; sharing sharp objects with infected persons; and from an infected mother to the unborn child. The HIV virus destroys the white blood cells, and weakens the body‘s immune system. When the body is weak, it is not able to fight, and defend itself against infections. Persons with the virus are vulnerable and susceptible to opportunistic infections.

The signs / symptoms of AIDS are manifestations of symptoms of the opportunistic infections. Some symptoms include persistent coughs, loss of weight, oral thrush, loss of appetite, and diarrhea.

Churches encourage Christians to be compassionate to HIV/AIDS affected people, and to support the infected and the affected individuals like the orphans, widows, and widowers. It also teaches against sexual immorality and against all forms of discrimination.

Gonorrhea -is caused by a bacterium called “Neisseria gonorrhea”. Its symptoms appear a4 days after infection. Its symptoms are burning sensation when passing urine; pain or discomfort in the genitals; sticky discharge or pus in the vagina or through the urethra. The good news is that Gonorrhea is curable if treated early.


Primary syphilis may show up in the form of a sore or a wound in the genitals a few days after infection. The wound heals by itself without treatment after some time. Syphilis infection may take several years about 7 years before its symptoms re appear. The symptoms of syphilis are a painless sore or pimple on the man’s penis or woman’s vulva; and swelling of the glands in the groin. Other symptoms, which may appear later, are skin rashes and sores either in the face armpits, under breasts, mouth or throat.

Herpes genital -is a sexual disease caused by a virus. It creates wounds in the genitals. A pregnant woman can transmit the infection to her newborn baby during delivery. This disease can be controlled although there is not an effective treatment.

Hepatitis B virus causes Hepatitis B. It is transmitted through sex, injections by unsterilized needles and contact with contaminated blood. The infection does not show on the genitals. The signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B include yellowness of the eyes (jaundice) due to liver damage and pain around the upper abdomen.

  1. The effects of irresponsible sexual behavior.

There are many effects of irresponsible sexual behavior. They include among others HIV / AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STI), abortion; family separations and divorces, deaths, unplanned pregnancies; children living in the streets; school drop outs and psychological problems.

  1. Effects of incest.

These are many. One, incest undermines the healthy relationships between members of a family as it brings shame and guilt among the parties involved. Two, incest destroys relationships within the family and can lead to breaking up of a marriage. Three, incest destroys self-esteem, self – respect, and dignity of the victim. We find that abused boys and girls end up having problems when trying to establish healthy relationship with members of the opposite sex. Four, incest can lead to pregnancy, and abortion. And as you have read in the newspapers, it can lead to infections with sexually transmitted diseases (S.T.I.’s) and HIV / AIDS. As I write, a father was jailed for life for raping his daughter and infecting her with HIV/AIDS virus.

  1. ii. Effects of Rape.

This crime has very serious consequences and harmful effects on the victim. Rape may result in pregnancy and can lead to physical, psychological, social, and spiritual side effects. The victim may suffer (1) serious physical injuries and (2) may contract the STI’s, and HIV / AIDs. The victim is traumatized, and ashamed of self. The victim suffers from guilt, loneliness, humiliation, posttraumatic stress disorders, and depression among others psychological manifestations. Young rape victims in particular may lose trust in the opposite sex. All these sufferings can lead to suicide and death.

iii. Effects of Fornication.

Some of these are having children out of wedlock; feelings of distrust, guilt, and hurt; contracting STI’s and HIV/AIDS; loss of self-respect; early and forced marriage and abortion.

  1. Effects of Adultery. Christians teach against adultery because it is against God’s commandments and can lead to divorce, abortion, STI, HIV/AIDS, domestic violence, murder (death) and psychological problems.
  2. Effects of Prostitution.

. It can lead to break up of marriage, and family. It lowers a person’s dignity and can lead to unplanned pregnancies, school dropouts; infections such as STI’s and HIV /AIDS and improper use of family resources.

  1. Effects of homosexuality.

It is a threat to procreation. It promotes loose short-term informal relationships and therefore promotes HIV / AIDS. Homosexual couples are prone to HIV/AIDS infections because of having many partners; although this is changing in USA where homosexual couples are being married in churches.

vii. Effects of Sexually transmitted diseases

HIV / AIDS effects are numerous. They include recurrent illness due to opportunistic infections. There is also stigmatization. Some individuals have feelings of guilt, anger, denial and depression. The sick persons have to look for extra finances to care for their health. They have the burden for medications, and special diet. HIV/AIDs has no cure and leads to death like many other diseases. Parents die and leave their children as orphans.

Gonorrhea effects are many. The disease damages a woman’s fallopian tubes leading to infertility; and a man’s epidydymis leading to sterility. An infected expectant mother can infect her newborn baby with gonorrhea. The disease may affect the eyes of the unborn child causing blindness. Gonorrhea can also cause inflammation of joints, the heart and liver.

Effects of Syphilis are damage to the heart, brain and the nervous system. This disease can lead to madness and death of the victim. If a child is infected while in the womb, or during birth, the brain maybe damaged. The child may have either physical deformities or the infected mother may give stillbirths.

Effects Herpes genitals. Infection can cause severe brain damage; cancer of the neck of the womb. If a woman is pregnant, the disease can cause death of the baby. The wounds and sores expose the sick person to HIV /AIDS infections.

Effects of Hepatitis B. This disease damages the liver and may lead to death of the infected person. It has a vaccine, but not treatment.

viii. Other consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviors these are death, unplanned pregnancies, children living in the streets, school dropouts and psychological problems related to irresponsible sexual behavior. These include among others: stress, depression, self – pity, withdrawal, aggressiveness, and violence.

Stress is the response of the body and mind to any situation that exerts pressure or makes demands on a person. The intensity or pressure experienced determines the level of stress. Some of the signs of stress are: anxiety, worry, and drop in performance, chest pains, mood swings, rebellion, ulcers, heart palpitations, and fatigue and guilt feelings.


To avoid stress, it is suggested that individuals should accept that one is stressed; identify sources of stress, rest, exercise, listening to therapeutic music and talk to a counselor.




This is an acute mental disorder. It is also a state of hopelessness and low spirits. Depression can be mild or severe. It has physical, emotional and behavioral signs and symptoms. Let me caution you that it is only a medical doctor who can know if one has a depression or not. We are told by doctors that signs of a depression are: persistent headaches and chest pains; loss of appetite; too much appetite; loss of memory; insomnia i.e. lack of sleep; weight loss or gain; nervousness and mood swings; low self-confidence; suicidal tendencies and self-pity. Other signs and symptoms are loss of libido (sexual desire); poor performance in school and in work places; hopelessness; loss of interest in ones activities; hypertension and high blood pressure

  1. Irresponsible social and human behavior.

There are social and human behaviors that are contrary to Christian life. These unacceptable behaviors are abortion, and divorce.

Abortion is termination of pregnancy before the foetus is capable of independent life. There are two types of abortions. One is spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. The other is induced abortion, which is deliberate and illegal in Kenya. Induced abortion has been debated in Kenya. The main question is should abortion be legalized or not. This is because abortion is legal in some European countries.

Why do mothers seeking abortion? There are many reasons, which are known only to mothers. These are one, pregnancy due to rape and incest. Two, if the mother believes that the unborn child will be a burden. This may be because the baby is conceived outside wedlock and the mother lacks economic resources to take care of the baby. Another reason maybe that the mother is in school and she cannot look after the baby and conti-nue with her education. Three, medical personnel may abort a deformed foetus or in order to save the life of the mother if it is in danger.

Christian’s view of abortion as murder (Exodus20: 13). This is because abortion interferes with the mother’s body, and destroys the baby. Christian view is that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.

God is the giver of life and He alone has the right to take it away. Abortion carries with it stigma and the effects mentioned above make Christians condemn abortion.

  1. Effects of irresponsible social and human behavior.

Effects of abortion are infertility, ectopic pregnancy, destruction of a woman’s body parts; fetal malformation; risk of the mother bleeding to death and destruction of uterus. Other effects are that the mother may experience in future still births, miscarriages, risk of barrenness; failed abortions leading to deformed babies and psychological problems that we have discussed. These are stress and depression.

Revision questions

  1. Explain the T.A. understanding of human sexuality
  2. Explain Christian attitudes towards human sexuality
  3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?
  4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya?
  5. Explain the Christian teaching on male/female relationships
  6. What is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior?
  7. List the different types of irresponsible sexual behavior
  8. Explain the Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behavior
  9. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behavior



  1. Definition of marriage.

Marriage is a binding legal union between a man and a woman who agree to have a lasting relationship as husband / wife. Marriage partners choose each other. In some cases, senior member of the family and church influence the choice of a marriage partner. When marrying partners agree to marry, they are joined in church and they become husband and wife. Marriage is thus a covenant in which the partners give themselves to one another.

Marriage involves other members of the community hence it is a social and community affair. Marriage is a permanent union. Marriage is a community requirement in which everyone in the community participates. Each person is expected to undergo marriage because it is a rite of passage. Marriage gives a person, a high social status and prestige in the community.

Marriage is also a covenant between a man and a woman that should not be broken. Two people are joined in marriage in order to procreate and perpetuate the community. Once married, a couple is allowed to have sexual relationship, and companionship. Marriage is an expression of and fulfillment of mutual love and comfort. It enhance unity; social prestige, and respect in society. Purpose of marriage is sexual fulfillment; cultural and social requirement; obligation to build a family; and procreation although children are a gift from God.

Forms of marriages

There are many forms of marriages. There is a marriage ceremony organized as a symbol or mark of the union between a man and a woman. These marriages ceremonies are either civil, or religious. The main religious ceremonies are Christian, Islamic, Hindu, and Sikh among others. We also have African customary ceremonies many of which are polygamous. Christianity does not allow polygamous marriage.

Secular approaches to marriage.

In the modern world, some people choose not to marry for personal reasons. Some people have children without getting married while others opt to have a marriage without children. Husband and wife are equal. Monogamy is practiced for economic reasons. In some families’ women are the heads of the family. Choosing a partner is an individual act and not communal. In marriage traditional qualities of a good wife such as industrious, honesty, and hospitality are not considered. The modern society values external beauty, financial status and social status. As a result, there is a high rate of marriage, separation, and divorce. At times young people fail to be married in church. There is no formalization of marriages. These marriages are called “Come-we-stay” arrangements.

Gender issues in marriage. The wife is subordinate to the husband but had rights. Marriage did not end with death of the husband. The wife was inherited by one of her husband’s brother. This is widow inheritance / Levirate marriage. She could also refuse to be inherited but remained married to that man even in death. The wife could not marry outside the family because of dowry. There was dowry payment to parents. If a wife died, the man would marry the sister of his dead wife. This is surrogate marriage.

Those who did not marry were considered “lesser humans”. Young people were prepared for marriage during initiation, which was witnessed in a public ceremony. During marriage, couple makes vows to each other. The ancestors are invoked to bless the marriage.

Factors that lead to a stable, healthy and successful marriage

People are different and they understand their roles differently. Here am giving you a few suggestions.

Discuss with your study companions and come up with other suggestions. One important factor is mutual responsibility by the couple. This occurs if there is mutual consultation with each other in decision-making. Two is forgiveness of each other. Three is good treatment of each other especially with equal respect. Four is sharing scriptures together. Five is giving love and respecting each other. Six is having a faithful sexual relationship and lastly being open and honest.

Seven is African traditional qualities of a good wife who is described as: hardworking, fertile, morally upright, generous, kind, obedient, humble, clean, beautiful, polite, warm hearted and hospitable. Eight are the qualities of a good husband, which are described as: being able to provide good leadership in the family. Other qualities are being aggressive, wise, brave, courageous, responsible and good property manager.

  1. Christian Teaching about Marriage.

Christians teach that marriage is sacred and that it is a divine institution, which is ordained God. God started it when he created Adam and Eve. Marriage should therefore be monogamous and permanent as God protects marriages. The woman should submit to the husband who is told to love the wife as Christ loved the church. Church teaches respect of each other.

Marriage is complete even without children as it is between a male and a female. Marriage is not obligatory and it ends when one partner dies.

Christian’s preparation and approach to marriage

Christians organize youth seminars, and rallies to teach the youth how to choose marriage partners and how to treat wife / husbands; care for the children; behave towards in laws; acquire wealth (men); and head a family. Youth are taught to avoid sexual intimacy before marriage. Those intending to marry are encouraged to go for pre marital counseling. During counseling, they are informed that love is the most important bond of unity in marriage. Church encourages partners to go for HIV /AIDs test before. Marriage ceremony is conducted in church

Choice of a marriage partner

There are many ways of identifying a marriage partner. One is arrangement by parents. If not one can make an individual decision and choose a wife or husband. Two is through an intermediary or third party. In African traditional polygamous marriages, the first wife identified a wife for her husband.

Girls would be given out to a chief as a gift

  1. Courtship in African Traditional society (A.T.S). Courtship varied from community to community.

Courtship is the period between engagement and wedding ceremony. During courtship premarital sex is forbidden. Girls and boys dressed with bracelets and rings. Courtship was important in A.T.S. This was because the man and woman who were girls and boys got to know each other better before marriage. It was a period when girls/boys were instructed in family life education. It was also a period for linking the two marrying families. The couple had time to learn about one another’s character, and know their families. It is a symbol (sign) of the girl’s presence in her home (maternal home). She continues to live with her own people.

The families and clan had an opportunity to check if the marrying couple was related and if their clans were acceptable to the parents. Courtship gives time to the two families to negotiate and pay the bride wealth or dowry.

Bridal Wealth, dowry, bride price are all expressions of partnership. The family of the man pays dowry to the family of the woman. Some churches disregard bride wealth, while others encourage it. Dowry is paid in different forms. The girl’s family decides what it wants. Will it be livestock (poultry, pigs, camels, cows, goats, and sheep), beer, grain, jewellery and clothes among others?

Importance of dowry

It acts as a compensation for the girl’s labor and seals the marriage covenant. It is a public expression of appreciation for the coming of a new wife/mother into the man’s family. It promotes friendship and cements relationship between families. It shows commitment and seriousness of the future husband. After dowry payment, the woman belongs to her husband.

A ceremony is carried out depending on the community. Bride price payment is accompanied by marriage ceremonies. Lastly dowry helps in maintaining peace

Traditional African approaches to marriage preparation. Polygamy is one husband, married to many wives. Polygamy is allowed by the African traditional religion because it occurs if the first wife is barren; ensures that all women have husbands; prevents infertility; provides extra labor in farms. A polygamous man has a higher status because many wives symbolize wealth.

Children are important in a marriage because they promote social status of their parents. They cement a bond of unity between husband / wife. They are a source of labor, and wealth. They are heirs to the family wealth

They provide security to the family.

Divorce is legal dissolution of marriage. Christians allow divorce because of specific grounds. Divorce was rare in African traditional societies. Divorce is granted under circumstances of: adultery, witchcraft, laziness, cruelty and disrespect of wife.

In the contemporary society, divorce is sought after or allowed because of: unfaithfulness in marriage or adultery; domestic violence; misuse of family resources; childlessness; in-law interference and alcohol abuse.

Legal reasons for divorce

According to the laws of Kenya, divorce is allowed under the following reasons; adultery; if a man deserts his wife for more than 3 years; if a partner becomes insane; and domestic violence for example, physical, and psychological torture.

Christian teaching about divorce

Christians discourage divorce because marriage is a permanent status.

There is no room for divorce. Church discourages divorce because of its adverse effects. Some denominations allow divorce if there is adultery. God hates divorce. Married couples should remain faithful to each other

Effects of divorce are strained relationships, children suffering psychologically, and experiences of rejection. A divorcee faces social stigma, rejection, and isolation. If parents separate, they create single parent families. These families suffer from economic hardships and feelings of failure and inadequacy.

  1. Celibacy as an alternative to marriage.

Celibacy is a Latin word “Coelebes” meaning bachelor. Why do some people fail to marry? There are many reasons. Some of these are to pursue education leading to delayed marriage; and career demands (workaholic). Other people are discouraged by examples of failed marriages. Other reasons maybe economic independence, poor health, HIV /AIDS, mental illness, parental interference and disappointment from past failed relationships. This happens if parents do not approve a partner.

Revision questions

  1. Explain the traditional African understanding of marriage

2, what is the importance of children in traditional African society?

  1. What is the Christian teaching about marriage?
  2. What is the importance of courtship period in T.As?
  3. Why are many people opting for celibacy?







As society grows and changes, the family grows and changes. As a result, there are several types and practices of the family. In this lesson, we shall discuss the traditional family as it is practiced in the Bible, the traditional African societies and some Christian families.

The family

What is a family? Family is the basic social unit of human society. This basic unit is extended to include relatives bound together by blood, marriage, friendship, and adoption. They are all members of the family. In Kenya, there are many types of families.

  1. Types of families
  2. Nuclear family is parents and their children. .It is father, mother, and children. There is an increase of monogamous families or nuclear because of urbanization as rural youth come to towns in search of white-collar jobs. Migration to cities by people of different tribes has led to pluralism. Education, high cost of living has led to the death of the African culture, which required men and women to marry many partners to produce many children to defend their tribe.

Advantages of nuclear families are many. One, the man is able to give undivided attention to one wife and children. Two, there is sharing of mutual love, and peace in the home. Three it is economical to manage one family. Four there is little competition for attention, less strife, quarrels and stress. Five, it is easier to monitor the behavior of a few children.

  1. Polygamous family – Father, mothers, children. These types of family have disadvantages in modern Kenya. Modern society is a cash economy. Thus if a man has many wives and children, they may lack basic necessities like food, shelter, education and clothes.

iii. Single parent family – one parent, and children. Single – parent families are created by several circumstances. One is by parents separating. Separation of parents is due to several reasons. These are for example, one partner going to another country and failing to return to his or her country and family.

Two, a single family is created by divorce. Divorced parents may decide not to marry again. Three is when one parent refuses to marry. This happens when a girl gets pregnant and the boy does not marry her. Four is because of death of a spouse. The remaining parent may decide not to remarry. Five is when some mothers decide to have children without marriage. This may not be correct as there is no research to suggest it. Six is imprisonment of one partner for a long time. One parent is left looking after children because one is in jail.

  1. Extended family – father, mother, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins. This is the common family type in traditional African communities.
  2. v. Children led family. This happens when parents die and the 1st born takes care of brothers and sisters including cousins.
  3. Grandparent headed family. The HIV/AIDs epidemic has introduced this type of family where grandparents take care of their grandchildren due to the death of both parents especially the mother due to HIV / AIDS disease. This scourge has made many children orphans. In other cases parents go for further studies abroad and leave their children with their parents.
  4. Traditional African family values and practices.

In African societies creation of a family is through marriage, and subsequent procreation. Family is viewed as a sacred institution in African society. The African traditional family includes the dead (ancestors), the unborn children and the living.

An African traditional family has obligations and duties. These were (1) offering sacrifices to ancestors,

(2) Pouring libations; and

(3) Giving the dead decent burials

(4) Providing basic needs to their children

(5) Bringing up children to be morally upright individuals. Further to this, the African traditional family is responsible for the upbringing, caring, and protection of its children. This is demonstrated by the nuclear family, which provides necessities required to meet and satisfy the economic needs of its members.

The African traditional family is expected to participate in communal activities. Work in the family was divided according to age, gender and social status. Each family member worked for its basic needs as well as the welfare of the community.

The African family had well-stated and practiced values There were (1) respect for family members

(2) Providing responsible parenthood, which is the process of bringing up children to become all round or self reliant persons

(3) Educating children in all aspects of life. Parents and the extended family members helped their children to develop intellectually and cognitively.

The family taught children physical skills. It also gave children confidence to appreciate their physical strength. Children were taken through a rigorous physical curriculum of games such as wrestling, swimming and running to develop their physical strength. Children’s bodies were nourished thoroughly.

They were served good and nutritious food, which improved their muscle strength.

Children were taught social skills. They learnt how to behave towards adults, peers and grandparents.

They developed social skills since parents allowed them to socialize and interact with other children, grandparents and the community. This made them grow socially, emotionally and psychologically.

They had a curriculum for teaching and training in traditional African religious values, family matters, moral and social values. This teaching of children started from an early age. The teaching method used was observation and practice. Parents taught by being good role models. They were expected to model desired values and family practices. Children were taught how to relate with one another as brothers and sisters. Parents were to show tolerance to children. These values show that African parents understood their parental roles and responsibilities.

These values were sometimes; exploited by the irresponsible family members or specific individuals.

This exploitation encouraged dependency, leading to conflicts, competition, hatred, and jealousy.

Christian parents are expected to train their children to know God; be self -disciplined, and follow the Christian way of living. Another duty is to provide basic needs to their children.

Christian understanding of the family

Among Christians, family is sacred and instituted by God. Read again about the Christian teachings about marriage.

Role of children in the Christian family A Christian child is expected to obey parents, honor them, and respect parents. This is one of the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God.

Parenting styles

  1. a) Dictatorship /authoritative / autocratic – the parents is the final authority, imposes decisions
  2. b) Permissive or liberal style – also referred to as “Laissez faire” the children do as they want
  3. c) Democratic style – parents discuss with their children on family issues. This is the best style.

Problems related to family life today

Families are faced with numerous problems such as

  1. a) Children abuse – sex assault, beating
  2. b) Domestic violence – abusive language, frequent fights, emotional abuse
  3. c) Diseases e.g. HIV / AIDS epilepsy, autism.
  4. d) Children with special needs, blindness, deafness or those with mental challenges, motor co – ordination (Autism)
  5. e) Separation, divorce
  6. f) Childlessness
  7. g) Single parent families – economic hardships
  8. h) Misuse of family resources, economic crisis
  9. i) Affluence – a lot of wealth
  10. j) Unemployment, underemployment
  11. k) Retrenchment – lying off of some employees in order to reduce the workforce
  12. l) Mismanagement of family finances
  13. m) Alcohol and drug abuse
  14. n) The generation gap
  15. o) Poor relations with in-laws
  16. p) Cultural and religious differences
  • Traditional African approaches to problems related to family life today

1) Individuals were prepared for challenges of family life right from childhood

2) Adolescents, initiates were given family life education

3) People entered marriage knowing that it’s a lifelong union

4) Rules were clear to govern marriage relations

5) Polygamy helped reduce unfaithfulness

6) There were no single parent families. Members lived together reducing loneliness

7) Widows / widowers were encouraged to marry again

Traditional brew was taken in moderation

Christian’s approaches to problems related to family life today

1) Christian families are obliged to live according to Christian principles and values such as mutual respect, self discipline, understanding, honesty, faithfulness, love and forgiveness

2) Premarital counseling is carried out

3) Church holds regular seminars and conferences on family life matters. Love and respect for each other. Christian wife to submit to husband who is head of the family. They are taught to take each other as complementary and equal partners.

4) Women are encouraged to form participate in church organizations e.g. mothers union, women’s guild where they learn roles of being a wife, mother, and a woman.

5) Some churches offer advice to families on management of their families. They are encouraged to have investments.

6) Breadwinner is encouraged to write a written will

7) To improve the parent – child relationship churches offer guidance and counseling to the youth

Christian parents are advised to set positive role models to their children

9) Parents are encouraged to be open and promote effective communication with their children

10) Churches in case of serious family conflicts such as child abuse, domestic violence, advise legal action.

11) Churches organize youth seminars where they talk about drug abuse, premarital sex, negative peer pressure and media influence etc.

12) Relevant information is passed through books, pamphlets, magazines, media FM, TV etc.

13) Some churches welcome unwed mothers

14) Churches provide health services, guidance on HIV / AIDS

15) Some churches care for widows, orphans widowers and the needy

Revision questions

  1. State the different types of families





-Use of energy, physical or mental, for the purpose of improving human life. It is any activity that requires expenditure of energy or application of skills e.g. studying, teaching, cooking, farming etc.


 Work can be described as a vocation, profession, trade, craft, career or a job.

Vocation is from a Latin word “Vocare” which means call. Christians believe that every individual has been called of God to various duties.

Vocation is work that requires special skills, special training or a unique call or a special mission in society.


-Work that is characterized by a code of ethics, lengthy specialized training, advance knowledge and self – disciple. Professionals have their own set standards. The professionals determine entry requirements for new members and usually have machinery for dealing with errant members. E.g. Law, medicine, architecture etc

A trade

-Refers to an occupation, a way of making a living. Some trades require specialized training examples hairdressing

A craft

An occupation which requires manipulative skills or use of the hands e.g. woodcarving, pottery, weaving. A craft may be a trade depending on the nature of occupation.

A career

-An occupation that one chooses to pursue in his/her life. It’s the general way of earning a living.


Refers to tasks performed, services rendered in return for payment of wages. Most jobs are temporary others casual and others permanent and pension able.

What determines one’s career, vocation?

  1. Available opportunities for future development in a particular job
  2. The need to serve others especially the church and the needy
  3. Interests, strengths, talents, abilities
  4. Inclination or attraction to a certain kind of work
  5. Pressure from parents, peers etc

General reasons why people work

  1. a) It’s an essential element of life
  2. b) God ordained work. Humans work for their food
  3. c) Work contributes to the development of the community
  4. d) Work is personal. It defines a person
  5. e) People work to earn a living
  6. f) People work for enjoyment, leisure
  7. g) To assist and give to the needy
  8. h) To get luxuries
  9. i) People work to raise their standards of living
  10. j) For self satisfaction and fulfillment
  11. k) For personal development
  12. l) To keep a person occupied and not idle
  13. m) To acquire wealth and status in the society
  14. n) To socialize with other members of the society
  15. o) To attain independence and not depend on someone else TRADITIONAL AFRICAN ATTITUDE TO WORK
  16. Explain importance of work
  17. Work is essential to the well being of the individual and survival of the community
  18. Work ensured basic needs such as food, shelters etc were provided.
  19. In traditional African society work was divided according to the age, gender, and status e.g. chief, elder of the individual.
  20. Everyone was a worker. Boys assisted in herding, fishing, girls assisted in cooking fetching firewood.

Women cooked, took care of babies constructed houses (maasai) etc.

  1. Works among the traditional African societies included pastoralist, farmers, livestock keeping, fishing, bee keeping etc
  2. Work was a communal affair; people would work together and assist each other
  3. Work was not for a wage (Money). The rewards of work-included food, communal unity, acquisition of moral values etc
  4. Hard work was emphasized, laziness was condemned
  5. There were some specific works for specialization e.g. herbal medicine men, divination, prophecy, rain making, pottery etc.
  6. Work involved giving prayers, offerings, and sacrifices to God
  7. Through work, the basic needs of the individual, community were fulfilled
  8. Through work potentials; talents and skills were explored, acquired and utilized.
  9. Work had a religious dimension as well as a social dimension. It brought people together improving their relations
  10. SAE
  11. Find out how different communities in Kenya lived in the past and how they live today
  12. How did the lifestyle of the communities influence daily activities?


  1. Describe the christens teachings about work

The Christian teaching on work is based mainly on the interpretation of the bible, the teachings of Jesus and the teachings of the apostles. Some of the teachings are: –

  1. God himself instituted work. He created the heavens and the earth and all in it. Since God worked man should work. (Gen. 2:1)
  2. God’s work of creation is good (Gen. 1:31) Christians should endeavor to produce good works
  3. Work is a duty, an obligation, a command Christians are responsible for God’s creation (Gen.2: 15).

They are to protect it – animals, birds, plants, marine life are all under the care of man.

  1. Human beings should work to acquire their basic needs (Genesis. 1:29 – 30, 3:19) God blesses the work of our hands
  2. Human beings are co – creators with God (Gen.1: 28) God continue to create through human beings.

Human beings glorify God through their work.

  1. God reveals himself through his work of creation. God had a purpose for his creation. He is orderly, source of life, Almighty etc.
  2. Work is a co – operative undertaking. Eve was created to be Adam’s helper (Gen. 2:20) Christians should co – operate in their undertakings
  3. Hard work is praised and laziness is looked down upon. (Proverbs 31:27). Christians should work for their daily needs and not become a burden to others.
  4. Work should be accompanied with rest (Gen.2: 2) God rested on the 7th day from all his work. God commanded the Israelites to rest on the 7th day.
  5. People should enjoy what they have worked for (Ecc.3: 22)
  6. Work should be done for the glory of God and for the good of the society.
  7. People should work honestly not steal but work to earn an honest living (Eph.4: 28)
  8. Those who do not work should not eat

They should always work since God is always at a work (John 15:17)



Professional ethics –: principles of behavior / conduct that guide members of a particular profession.

What workers are allowed to do and not to do.

Professional ethos

The group identity of members of a profession, their unique custom or character e.g. what identifies doctors, lawyers etc.

Profession codes or code of ethics Collection of laws arranged systematically according to major concerns and core functions of the profession.


– To regulate the behavior of professional (workers)

– Enables professionals to understand their role

– Ensures professionals provide quality of services to their clients

– To encourage respect among professionals

– Give guidance on how professionals should relate to one another

– They safe guard professionals against being compromised / misused

– They determine expected level of performance

– They serve as a measure of competence

– Act as a measure of quality service

– They protect the professionals

– They provide a reference point for disciplining (used to discipline the errant professional)

– They inspire respect and high esteem for professionals

– Through professional codes, ethics, ethos, professional earn public trust



A virtue is a good human habit. It’s a moral principle, moral quality or goodness of character and behavior.

Examples of virtues elated to work

(i) Diligence – hardworking

(ii) Honesty, integrity – ability to be relied upon (Integrity) Honest is being truthful.

(iii) Faithfulness – being trustworthy and loyal

(iv) Responsibility – ability to make decisions and take action independently. Being mindful of other people’s welfare

(v) Tolerance – ability to bear with others or with difficult situations



Employers: government, non – governmental organization, private sector – individuals, company, self-employment.

Employers have several duties and responsibilities towards their employees. They are:

– To organize and conduct business efficiently for the benefit of the institution, employer, community

– To respect the employee, treat them with dignity

– Pay a fair wage to the employee

– Ensure good healthy and safe working conditions

– Provide social welfare for the employees e.g. time off, leave days, time for recreation

– Grant leave as required by law or the terms of contract

– Take care of the welfare of the employees give medical cover, pension scheme etc

– To motivate their employees

– To reward employees

– Compensate employees made redundant

Rights of the employer

Employers have a right to / are entitled to

(a) Get profits from their businesses

(b) Carry out their businesses without unfair taxation

(c) Form association with other employers

(d) Obtain and conduct business

(e) Hire, dismiss employees in accordance with the requirements of their firms and contract

(f) Demand a fair day’s work

(g) Conduct business without subjection to unfair conditions and competitions

Moral duties of the employees

  1. Carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision
  2. Respect and protect the property of the employer
  3. Encourage peaceful solutions to any problems encountered in their work place
  4. To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development
  5. To respect their employer and fellow employees
  6. Observe terms of contract with employer
  7. Be loyal, honest, respect to the employer

Rights of the employees

To receive fair wages

To have a reasonable work load

Have reasonable hours of work

Have safety and protection at work

Right to join a labor union

Right to further individual training and development education

Rights to retirement, terminal benefits

Rights to a fair opportunity for provision

A right to time for rest

Right to Favorable working conditions


Wages and industrial action (Strikes)

A wage is payments for work done. Payment is in modern times done according to hours, weeks or days that one works.

Christian teachings on wages

– Human beings have the right to work for a decent living (Matt.20:1 – 16) they should be paid for their work.

– Workers should be paid wages to the amount and value of their work (1 Timothy 5:18)

– Wages should be paid as agreed upon (Mathew 20:13)

– Employers should not take advantage of the poverty of the employee (Deuteronomy 24: 14 – 15)

– Human beings should not be enslaved to work (Ex.5:22 – 23)

– Employers who degrade their workers in wages are condemned (Deut.24:14 – 15, Jer.22:13)

– Oppression is condemned (Amos 5:18, 8; 4)

– Workers wages should never be withheld (James 5:4)

Industrial action

Also commonly called ‘Strike’ this is an effort by workers to stop work in protest by boycott go-slow sit – ins or refuse to work. There has been increase of industrial action in the recent past in most countries of the world.

Reasons for industrial actions

1 Due to increased awareness of workers’ rights

2 Exposure to global trends through the media

3 Formation of trade unions that fight for the rights of workers

4 Due to poor working conditions

5 Underpaying workers

6 Threatening workers with unjustified dismissals

7 Suspending the workers / interdiction – unjustly

8 A hostile working environment

Results of workers strikes (industrial / action

  1. a) Pay cuts
  2. b) Demotions
  3. c) Loss of jobs
  4. d) Employers suffer losses
  5. e) Inflation
  6. f) Injuries even death when confronted by police
  7. g) Victimization of some individuals
  8. h) Bitterness among the workers and employers

Christian approaches towards strikes

  1. a) Christians recommend a peaceful co – existence between workers and employers
  2. b) There should be fairness, justice, love among workers, employees
  3. c) There should be an open communication channel across the ranks from top to bottom
  4. d) Employees should not destroy property
  5. e) Working conditions should be better and improved
  6. f) Employees to be human when dealing with employees



A child is a person below 18 years. A child does not have an identity card, does not vote (in Kenya).

According to International Labor Organization the minimum employment age is 14 years.

Child labor

It is engaging a person below the age of 14 years in wage / paid employ-ment.

Reasons why children are employed

– To provide cheap labor

– They cannot fight for proper terms

– They are easily hired and fired



Disadvantages of child labor

Children are not yet mentally and physically prepared to do adult jobs. This leads to

  1. a) Exploitation of children
  2. b) Children paid less, taken advantage of
  3. c) It inhibits the growth of a child and denies them a chance to enjoy their childhood
  4. d) It deprives them of their right to basic education
  5. e) It exposes children to hazards (dangers) from machines, chemicals
  6. f) Heavy workload deprives children of social educational, moral, psychological, physical rights

Places where children are employed

– Plantations – coffee, tea

– Domestic services – homes

– Tourism sector

– Industries

– Children are trafficked and employed as commercial sex workers

Causes of child labor – reasons why children work

1 Lack of money / poverty

2 Death of parents

3 Dropping out of school due to pregnancy, indiscipline, (truancy), poor academic performance or lack of school fees.

4 Those who never went or taken to school

5 Lack of good role models e.g. coast province Mombasa; Malindi has several of the financially stable people being school dropouts, engaged in drug trafficking, commercial sex etc.

6 Influence of cultural values e.g. circumcision of boys in some communities is done later in life and one is declared an adult e.g. the kikuyu circumcising at 13 years, or 12 years

7 Children being lured by employers

8 Greed for material benefits

9 Being homeless ending up as a street child


Position of church in dealing with child labor

– The church condemns it

– It has put up homes for poor children (orphanages)

– It provides guidance, counseling to both parents and children

– Children are blessing from God hence should be loved and cared for

– Parents have the responsibilities to protect their children from harm.




When people are capable and willing to work but are unable to find a viable income or occupation it is referred to as unemployment.

Causes of unemployment

1 Preference for prestigious white collar jobs (Office jobs, non – manual jobs)

2 Corruption, tribalism, nepotism, bribery denying jobs to the qualified in preference for the unqualified.

3 Unequal distribution of wealth – some regions are more resourceful than others. Industries, good infrastructure concentrated in some areas.

4 Inadequate resources for self – employment (lack of capital, skills)

5 Limited job opportunities – probably due to high population growth

6 Few international investors in Kenya, probably due to high crime rate, insecurity

Identify ways of creating job opportunities

Response of Christians to issues of unemployment

  1. a) They encourage self – employment in cases of unemployment
  2. b) They have set up vocational training, polytechnics to train people towards jobs that are for self – employment
  3. c) Christians condemn idleness


Self-employment is an economic activity initiated, controlled by an individual. It is an occupation in which a person initiates a personal enterprise and manages it with the help of others.



Small businesses enterprises, Jua kali sector, music industry, entertainment (e.g. comedians), community work, agriculture etc

Problems / challenges

– Some lack sufficient capital to start a business and keep it running

– Lack of necessary skills to run the business

– High taxation leading to some business closing down

– Small scale traders face undue competition from larger firms

Revision questions

  1. What is work?
  2. List any six reasons why people work
  3. Explain T.As attitude towards work
  4. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in the modern society
  5. What are the rights of employers?
  6. State the duties of employees
  7. Why has child labor become common in Kenya?
  8. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?
  9. What can the government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?




Work is an obligation – however people cannot work 24 hours. They need to rest. God rested on the 7th day after work. Work and rest are complementary elements of human life.

Definition of leisure

This is the time when one is free from work or other duties. Time at one’s own disposal, which can be utilized in a productive manner depending on one’s interests and abilities. Leisure provides mental, physical relaxation, spiritual, emotional relaxation and enrichment

Forms of leisure

  1. Passive
  2. Active leisure

Passive involves use of mental energy

Active leisure – there is use of physical energy

Examples of activities of passive leisure are

– Watching television

– Reading story books

– Playing video games

– Chatting with friends

Examples of activities of active leisure are

– Jogging

– Mountain climbing

– Gardening

– Dancing

– Tree planting

– Playing football

Leisure is used for

– Enjoyment

– Entertainment – song, dance, watching movies etc

– Relaxation – exercises

– Socialization – sharing, education

– Religious engagement – wedding ceremonies, visiting the sick, worship

In passive leisure others entertain while in active leisure the person is active, whole body is involved.

Active leisure enables a person to

  1. Develop his/her body
  2. Build stamina
  3. Strengthen relationships etc

Some leisure activities are dangerous e.g. boxing, motor racing; while others are expensive e.g. golf.

Other leisure activities are addictive while others are unproductive.

– Leisure activities should be planned for

– Leisure activities can also be economic, income generating activities.

In traditional African society leisure permeates all aspects of life. Leisure activities accompany work.

Leisure and work were entertainment. Work was accompanied by singing, reciting stories sharing past events. Examples of leisure activities in traditional African society include

– Wrestling

– Running

– Playing ajua

– Mock fighting

– Swimming

– Spear throwing

– Poetry

– Music and dance etc

Leisure activities that were communal include

  • Bull fighting
  • Tongue – twisters
  • Poetry recitation
  • Telling of myths legends
  • Dancing
  • Brain teasers
  • Riddles etc

-Work in African society included fishing, tilling the land, herding, hunting, harvesting o most leisure activities in traditional African society were active form of leisure, communal, not individualistic and not for monetary gains

-All forms of leisure had an educational value. Folk stories had a moral value. People were taught not to be selfish, greedy jealousy etc Myths and legends tell of the origin of the community and its history of important people as well as history of the community.

– In African traditional society, leisure led to acquisition of values or virtues such as co – operation, sharing, solidarity, love, bravery, empathy, endurance, tolerance etc.

– Most activities were linked to the worship of God and, veneration of the ancestors

– Leisure activates were organized along gender and age group season (E.g. harvest – dancing, singing); wet rainy seasons – boat swimming

– Rites of passage e.g. initiation, marriage, birth and naming provided leisure activities

-Leisure activities were planned for


Christian teach that:

  1. a) Work and leisure are of divine origin. God rested on the 7th day after working
  2. b) Leisure is a gift from God leisure should be put to good use. Its not be wasted
  3. c) Leisure provides us with the opportunity to worship God. Leisure should be used to serve God.
  4. d) Christians associate leisure with personal growth and fellowship
  5. e) Jesus recognized the need for rest by withdrawing his disciples from their active ministry. It’s good to have time alone for reflection, rest, visit friend etc.
  6. f) Leisure should be used to seek God and help others e.g. Jesus prayed, helped the needy restored people’s health.

Ways Christian use their leisure time – activities

Worshipping God

Visiting the sick

Caring for the needy


Watching television

Chatting with family members

Retreat – time spend away with a group of people to be alone with God

Visiting friends, relatives

Reading the bible

Praying etc


Importance of leisure

Leisure is necessary. It’s important in various ways

1) It is a good time to assess the work we have done (Reflection time)

2) It brings people together leading to self – growth and fulfillment (Social function of leisure)

3) Leisure helps individuals to discover their hidden talents

4) Leisure relaxes the mind – a change of activity, relieves the mind

5) Leisure refreshes the body – restores lost energy

6) Leisure enables Christians to offer charity to those in need

7) Leisure provides time for worship and spiritual renewal

8) Leisure gives one time to rest

9) It’s time for recreation

10) Give one time to attend social occasions

11) Allows people to travel and visit friends and relatives

12) Leisure can be used to enhance and acquire new skills and knowledge

13) It’s a time to develop and discover ones talents

Uses of leisure – proper use of leisure

Leisure can be used for

  1. Religious experience
  2. A time for rest
  3. Leisure is used to provide us with time to help others
  4. Leisure can be used to spread the word of God
  5. Development of talents
  6. It’s an opportunity for individual growth
  7. Leisure strengthens social relationships
  8. Leisure can be used for reflection on one’s decision; actions etc leisure activities reveal who we are.
  9. Leisure can be used for educative and economic purposes

Proper use of leisure is when leisure time is spent doing activities that add value to us.

Misuse of leisure today

Leisure time can be misused through various activities e.g.

1) Spending too much time in passive activities e.g. pornography watching, watching films that are violent

2) Spending leisure time in idle talk – gossip-leading to conflicts

3) Spending time in gambling, casinos making bets on horses playing Ajua games etc

4) Alcohol and drug taking – when a person over drinks alcohol, spends time drinking at the expense of family, abusing drugs is misuse of leisure time.

5) Leisure can also be misused by engaging in dangerous activities.

Night dancing, disco dancing has become a common form of leisure worldwide. What are the advantages and disadvantages?



A drug is any substance which when taken may alter or cause changes in the normal functioning of the body.

Drug abuse

-Improper use of drugs. Using a drug for another purpose than what it is intended for

Drug use

Proper use of drugs

Drugs are taken in various forms namely

1 Liquid

2 Lotions

3 Ointments

4 Powders

5 Cake form,

Drugs are classified as legal and illegal

Ways of administering drugs

Drugs are taken /administered in various ways

– Infecting

– Inhaling / smoking

– Chewing

– Swallowing

– Drinking

– Sniffing / snuffing

Categories of drugs

  1. a) Medicinal
  2. b) Soft drugs
  3. c) Hard / narcotic drugs

Types of drugs

1) Preventive drugs e.g. drugs to prevent polio, cholera, yellow fever

2) Curative drugs – drugs that cure diseases

3) Sedatives, palliatives – drugs that alleviate pain, put patients to sleep e.g. drugs for diabetes, heart diseases, asthma, painkillers

4) Tranquillizers – drugs that relieve tension induce sleep e.g. piriton, valium

5) Stimulants – drugs used to increase physiological activity of a particular organ. They arouse the activity of the central nervous system / senses.

6) Volatile drugs – these drugs intoxicate the user, they are derived from petroleum products paint thinners dry cleaning fluids glue etc. stimulants and volatile drugs classified as soft drugs.

7) Hard drugs or narcotic drugs

These are highly addictive drugs. The body forms dependence on these drugs. These drugs affect the mind causing drowsiness; sleep, stupor and they are the most commonly abused drugs. Examples are


– From coca leaves

– Its highly addictive

– Causes mental problems

– Can lead to death on overdose

– A very expensive drug

Other side effects are confusion, Convulsions, circulatory collapse and rapid heart beat

Bhang / Marijuana

– A plant of Indian hemp

– Also called marijuana, Hashish, Cannabis, and Sativa depending on which part of the plant is taken i.e. leaves, stem, or roots.

– Users become aggressive excited or high

– Bhang changes perception of space, time and reality

– It causes drowsiness and irresponsible behavior

– Its side effects causes people to be engaged in criminal activities e.g. robbery with violence as it gives changes in perception


It’s used to suppress pain clinically

– Its addictive

– Its derived from cocaine

– Used as local aesthetic


– Its pain relieving

– Highly addictive

– Powder heated in foil paper, vapor forms hence smoked referred to as” chasing the dragon”

– Also called brown sugar

– Its injected and inhaled

– An overdose can lead to death

– Its expensive

– It causes respiratory problems

– Its depressive

– Withdrawal symptoms when heroine is not available are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and severe anxiety

Soft drugs

– Cigarette

– Alcohol

– Miraa / khat


– Made from tobacco

– Cigarettes contain

  1. a) Nicotine – a highly addictive substance.
  2. b) Carbon monoxide, which damages arteries heart and lungs
  3. c) Tar – black substance which promotes cancer of the throat, heart and lungs

Cigarettes are legal drugs in Kenya.

Pregnant women may miscarry or terminate the pregnancy if they smoke.

Leads to chest respiratory diseases poor blood circulation

Leads to destructive fires due to carelessness

Miraa / khat

1 Plants / legally in Kenyan, and other parts of the world

2 They are chewed

3 Causes temporary excitement

4 Makes one loose appetite for food and sex

5 The juice in miraa causes temporary excitement in the user when ingested

6 Miraa makes the user to be irritable


– Alcohol is a drug made through fermentation

– It’s a drink used in social ceremonial occasions

– It’s in form of beer wines, traditional brew (e.g. busaa, muratina, mnazi ) and spirits e.g. whisks, brandy, gin, chang’aa

– Alcohol is prepared by fermentation or distillation – heating to a certain degree.

– In African traditional society, alcohol was fermented and used for

  1. Medicinal value
  2. Entertainment
  3. Marriage celebrations
  4. Beer parties given to visitors

– Excessive drinking was discouraged

– Drunk people were scorned or scolded

– Young people were not allowed to drink alcohol

– When alcohol is taken excessively it is abused

Alcohol abuse

– Alcohol can lead to body dependence or addiction

– Consequences of abusing alcohol are such as

(i) Squandering family resources

(ii) Health deterioration

(iii) Lack of concentration leading to poor quality of work

(iv) Family break-ups due to frustrations

A man experiences a desire for sex but lacks the ability to perform leading to break ups

(v) Deformed foetus if a mother abuses alcohol when pregnant

(vi) Alcohol destroys brain cells

(vii) It leads to unruly behavior such as fights, violence

(viii) One is vulnerable to risky behavior – a drunken person is unable to make proper decisions hence vulnerable to sexual infections such as HIV / AIDS

(ix) Can make a person cause accidents if driving under the influence of alcohol or staggering on the road.



(i) Frustration due to unemployment, inability to perform well and meet set standards or other personal frustrations.

(ii) Idleness – when idle some turn to alcohol and drug use

(iii) Addiction

(iv) Boredom

(v) Bad examples from adults

(vi) Availability of drugs in the Kenyan market

(vii) Negative peer pressure

(viii) Experimentation then addiction

(ix) Media influence

(x) Societal permissiveness

(xi) Urbanization

(xii) Pressure of work

(xiii) Financial stress

(xiv) Globalization – foreign world influences

Effects of drug abuse

Drug abuse poses danger to the health of a person, affects family, society in general. Effects of drug abuse are

  1. Psychological problems – drugs are addictive. The body becomes dependant on them. It cannot perform without the drugs. It leads to depression, irritability, aggressiveness, paranoia, one becoming afraid to face reality etc.
  2. Crime – robbery, theft, people abusing drugs will rob, steal so as to get money to buy the drugs. Drugs have led to students setting schools on fire, killing their fellow students
  3. Illusion – users do not face reality
  4. Health problems – one is prone to diseases because of frequent use of drugs. Drugs weaken the body’s system e.g. alcohol leads to liver Cirrhosis, stomach ulcers. One is susceptible / prone to HIV /

AIDS infection STI’s lung cancer, still birth etc

  1. Economic problems

Drugs are expensive. Abuse leads to depletion of family resources leading to poverty

  1. Loss of job and income
  2. Social problems

Abuse of drugs leads to family conflicts, leading to separation, divorce, family quarrels fights and even murder (domestic violence)

  1. Accidents
  2. Frustrations
  3. Poor performance in school work
  4. Death

People die out of drug abuse. An over dose of heroin, cocaine kills. Alcohol can lead to a blackout, this affects the brain


Drug abuse has become a global problem. Remedies or solutions include:

  1. a) Law enforcement

-Through bodies such as UNDCP United Nations International Drug Control Programme Anti Narcotics Police Units, NACADA National Agency for the Campaign against Drug Abuse so as to control abuse of Narcotics and other drugs.

  1. b) Education

-People to be educated on the effects of drugs. The curriculum from pri-mary to secondary to include topics on drug abuse.

Guidance and counseling

Religious teachings – all religious condemn the abuse of drugs

Family values to be promoted. Parents should set good examples to their children

-Every individual to cultivate individual values. Respect their body and take care of their bodies

-Rehabilitation of drug users / abusers



Criteria – criterion – a principle or standard for judging something.

How does a Christian determine whether a certain leisure activity is lawful, acceptable before God – criteria for evaluating the use of leisure?

1) Christians, should engage in leisure activities which promote their respect and dignity they should socialize with people who are morally upright (bad company corrupts good morals)

2) God ordains leisure hence it should serve God’s purpose.

3) Leisure should come after work

4) Leisure should be used for the good of others. The activities that are harmful to others should be avoided

5) Activities chosen should enrich their knowledge of God

6) Activities should provide service to others

7) Leisure doesn’t mean laziness

A Christian should not engage in a harmful activity to self but those that promote respect and dignity

9) Christians to avoid activities that lead to sin or to addiction

10) They should perform an activity which develop their physical emotional social and spiritual well being

11) Leisure should be enjoyed with moderation

12) Activities for leisure should be moral, within the laws of God and pleasing to good.

Revision questions

  1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned
  2. Write down five ways in which modern Christians use their leisure time
  3. Give five ways in which drug use and abuse could affect a Christian
  4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug use and abuse

5(a). Why is leisure important in the life of a Christian?

5(b). What factors have contributed to the misuse of leisure in Kenya?

  1. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya




  1. a) Wealth: – accumulation…

-Accumulation of materials owned by an individual, family or a group of people. Wealth is property that has economic value e.g. land, animals, money, valuable possessions such as jewellery, commercial and residential buildings etc.

Ways of acquiring wealth



Commercial farming

Salaried Jobs

Investment of money in financial institution

Provision of commercial services

  1. b) Money

It’s the medium of exchange that functions as a legal tender. It is something that is generally accepted as a medium of exchange, a means of payment. It is usually in form of coins or notes. Good monetary media (money) has certain qualities.

Qualities of money

  • It should be acceptable
  • It should be fairly stable
  • Easy to divide into small units
  • Easy to carry
  • Should be relatively scarce
  • It should be durable
  • Its value should be maintained through proper control of its circulations

Money is a measure of wealth. What it can purchase is the value. Money is used to buy services, goods, pay debts etc.

Examples of currencies in the world are

Ksh. (Kenya), Rand (South Africa) US & Dollar, Pound (Britain) Euro (Europe), Yen (Japan) Etc

  1. c) Poverty

State of being without adequate basic necessities of life e.g. food, shelter, clothing

It’s a state of helplessness. It is characterized by poor health, hunger, and lack of education facilities, uncared for environment.

Causes of poverty

  1. Adverse climatic conditions (Geographical factors)
  2. Poor family background (historical and social factors)
  3. Political stability leading to civil wars
  4. Poor governance
  5. Regional imbalance of natural resources
  6. Low level of technology
  7. Laziness
  8. Over dependence on foreign aid





In African traditional societies wealth was measured in terms of the amount of land, livestock, grains, and wives, children possessed by an individual or the community.

Wealth was acquired in various ways.

(i) As a gift from God

Most Africans believe that wealth is a blessing from God.

(ii) Inheritance

In cases where the head of the family is dead, the eldest son becomes the custodian of the estate. The clan and community elders give direction on how the wealth is to be shared out.

(iii) Bride wealth

(iv) Farming

(v) Exploitation of natural resources – honey, wood for carving, building materials etc

(vi) Trade

African communities were involved in barter trade where they exchanged good and services

(vii) Raids – wealth was also acquired by raiding other communities – goats, sheep, Cattle.

– People were encouraged to work hard to acquire wealthy honesty

– Wealthy people were highly regarded and were considered for leadership position

– Wealth was incomplete without a family


Poverty was viewed as punishment or curse for wrongdoing.

Other causes of poverty according to African Traditional Society were: –

  • Laziness
  • Lack of inheritance
  • Raids by other communities
  • Famine
  • Natural calamities
  • Sickness – rendering the individual weak to acquire wealth

– In acquiring wealth, principles such as value for human life, mutual responsibility, and sharing, communal ownership were emphasized.

– Places that were communal include grazing land, rivers, and watering places

– Laziness was ridiculed through songs, riddles and proverbs.



– Money was introduced to Africa by the Europeans

– Before colonial period, Africans practiced barter trade – actual goods exchanged with other goods e.g. animals would be exchanged with food grains, millet, sorghum, cowpeas, children exchanged for food during famine.

– Trade merchants from Asia had introduced into Africa forms of currency such as the cowry shells, gold and the Indian rupees. Europeans introduced currency still used today

Economy: – careful management of resources, finances, income and expenditure of a family, a business enterprise, community or a country. The economy of a country is to be well managed if it has the ability to meet the social economic needs of her members.


It’s measured by the health of its economy in the provision of health, education, housing, sanitation, employment, and longevity of life, decrease of material and child mortality.

Money economy: – Use of money as a means of exchange in economic activities e.g. banking, investment, insurance, payment of goods and services.

Reasons for money introduction

1) Colonization brought a lot of changes such as unoccupied land declared ‘Crown land’ for colonialists.

2) Tax introduction

Africans were supposed to pay taxes to the government. Taxes were paid in form of money.

3) Introduction of formal education School fees was introduced. Fees were paid in form of money.

4) Introduction of modern medical services

People paid medical services using money.

5) Emergence of new lifestyles

Converts to Christianity were emphasized on to have materials, hence had to work to improve their living standards. They built houses, took their children to schools practiced modern family techniques hence had to use money.

Impact of the introduction of money economy in traditional African society

1) Introduction of wage – labor

2) Break up of family ties as people migrated from rural to urban areas in search of employment

3) African land taken by the colonialists, reducing people to squatters hence need to work

4) There was creation of a gap between people – the rich and the poor

5) Emergence of vices e.g. corruption, bribery, prostitution, robbery

6) Deterioration of cherished African values e.g. bride wealth has become commercialized, customs lost etc.

7) Loss of African human dignity. Africans had to pay taxes to the colonial government. They were forced to work in European farms so as to get money. They worked under dehumanizing conditions

Production of traditional food crops declined replaced by cash crops.

9) Individual ownership of land was emphasized. Land could be sold at will

10) There was increase of rural – urban migration leaving the rural people less educated.

11) Exploitation of the poor by the rich – poor wages, overcharging prices on foods.

12) Destruction of the natural environment to create room for building projects, urban centers

13) The cost of living increased. Almost everything is acquired by money.


Teaching on wealth

1) Wealth is a blessing from God

2) Those who obey God’s laws, teachings of the prophets are promised blessings by God Deut28: 1 – 4

3) Wealth has duties associated with it e.g. 10% tithe, alms to the poor, and an aspect of stewardship.

4) Wealth should be used wisely. People are not owners of their property but are stewards. Should share with the poor and needy.

5) Wealth is not permanent e.g. parable of the rich fool. When people die, they take nothing with them. Naked into the world, naked out of the world. Job. 1:21

6) Wealth can create a false sense of independence feeling of self reliance no need for God

7) Wealth should be obtained justly – no happiness for a person who gets riches in the wrong way.

Wrong attitude to wealth can lead to idolatry and other dangers. Matt.19: 23 – 24 danger of materialism – making riches their God, the love of money is the root of all evil (1 timothy 6:10)

9) It is wrong to discriminate against others on the basis of material possessions. Jesus associated with the rich, the poor, the sick etc.

10) Seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling than material wealth, which is transitory – temporal. Matt 6:19 – 20)

11) Acknowledge God as the source of one’s riches

12) Use wealth to help the needy

13) Wealth is an instrument to enable us live decently.

14) Obsession with money and wealth leads to sin

15) Church leaders should avoid greed for wealth (1 Timothy 3:3)

16) God will judge rich exploiters.

Christian teaching on poverty

1) Christian teachings discourage irresponsible behavior and habits e.g. laziness, idleness and negligence. Some people became poor because of such.

2) Some people become poor because of misfortunes

3) Others are poor because of judgment due to disobedience to God

4) God cares for the poor

5) Those with more should share with the poor

6) People should work to alleviate poverty in the society

7) Jesus helped the poor so should we.

The poor in spirit will be blessed


Christians can respond by:

  1. Insistence on fair distribution of wealth
  2. Fighting against bribery and corruption
  3. Using life skills
  4. Practicing Christian values


– Affluence – having a lot of material possessions and a luxurious standard of living. Poverty is a state of lack of the basic necessities.

– Illegal means of acquiring wealth include fraud, grabbing public land, selling narcotic drugs etc

Factors that have contributed to poverty

  1. Political instability
  2. Lack of formal education
  3. Laziness
  4. Negative attitude towards work – choosing jobs
  5. Historical factors – colonization lack of land
  6. Exporting unprocessed agricultural products cheaply then sold back expensively.
  7. Fair distribution of wealth / resources
  8. a) Christians to promote the value of justice, fairness, social responsibility. How? By having anti – corruption crusades, be role models, teach or import skills, advocate for cancellation of foreign debts, taxation to all etc.
  9. b) Fair salaries
  10. c) Promotion of affordable and decent housing
  11. d) Favorable terms of loans
  12. e) Encourage Jua Kali artisans
  13. f) Christians to demand transformation of society through implementation of just economic policies that can ensure fair distribution of wealth.
  14. g) Encourage foreign investors through good infrastructure, incentives e.g. shorter process to register business, security.
  15. h) Christian to encourage investments by churches and inculcate in people the values of hard work, proper time management free education free health care for the poor or needy.

Fair distribution of wealth / resources refers to jobs, infrastructure, hospitals, water, agricultural products etc.



Fighting against bribery and corruption

Bribery and corruption are related terms.

Corruption: – practice of giving a bribe in the form of money, goods or privileges in return for a service.

Bribery: – act of giving money, material goods or services to someone to influence the recipient to give underserved favor. It is aimed at influen-cing a decision to favor.

Bribery is a form of corruption.

– Corruption is some kind of moral degeneration. A practice whereby someone uses his/her influence in an activity that is not morally acceptable.

– Example of corruption include promotion by a senior for a favor, colluding to miss work, use of government vehicles to attend to personal matters.

In Kenya, Kenya Anticorruption commission KACC is a national body formed to fight corruption.

Factors leading to bribery and corruption

  1. Un-employment – one will bribe to secure employment
  2. Greed for money – caused by peer pressure, poor moral values, wrong ethical foundation about money etc.
  3. Fear – fear of being imprisoned
  4. Ignorance – giving bribes in form of gifts
  5. Disintegration of traditional African values
  6. Lack of moral integrity – no Christian values, one having no spiritual basis
  7. Frustration in the place of work
  8. A perverted conscience

Consequences of corruption and bribery

  1. Leads to injustice
  2. Leads to incompetent supplies of goods or services being awarded hefty contracts – leads to poor services e.g. road construction
  3. Poor infrastructure, poor public service delivery
  4. Leads to undermining moral fabric of society – leading to social hopelessness and despair
  5. Has led to lack of trust in public servants, and the government
  6. Discontentment among people.
  7. Degrades the personality of an individual
  8. Can lead to imprisonment and lose of job


  1. It is condemned as an evil practice (a social evil) Ex. 23:8
  2. Bribes cause injustice proverbs 17:23
  3. Seen as morally wrong as they negatively affect one’s family
  4. Jesus drove out merchants from the temple. They had started exploitation of the poor.
  5. Condemned because it degrades the personality of an individual
  6. Amos condemned taking and giving of bribes
  7. Bribes blinds the eyes

In the parable of John the Baptist condemned soldiers from taking bribes

Corrupt judge and the widow, corruption is condemned

  1. Christians are to live righteously and not give bribes or receive. They are the light of the world.
  2. Money gained from corruption is not acceptable before God.

C Using life skills

Life skills are abilities, which enable a person to face the challenges of life in an effective way they are

Decision making

Critical thinking

Creative thinking

Self esteem


  1. Decision making

Process of identifying the best alternative to overcome a challenge encountered. Often decisions we make do not only affect us but those around us.

Steps to decision – making

  1. Identify the challenge (problem) what’s the problem? What is bothering you?
  2. Understand the challenge / problem: – What is really bothering you?
  3. Find out possible solutions
  4. Find out the possible options and alternatives
  5. Consider the possible consequences for each option
  6. Select the best option
  7. Implement
  8. Evaluate the outcome of the action
  9. Critical thinking
  10. Ability to examine and assess a given situation impartially or objectively. It involves reasoning carefully. Getting detailed information, consider the option before making a decision. Critical thinking makes a person responsible for their actions.
  11. Creative thinking

This is the act or practice of using ideas imaginatively to solve a problem

  1. Self-esteem

– This is the regard one has about himself or herself. Self-esteem can be low or high, positive or negative.

A positive or high self-esteem person has confidence, is outgoing, social, appreciates self, realistic and independent.

– A person with low, negative self-esteem is naïve, withdrawn, shy, feels inadequate, and no self-confidence.

  1. Assertiveness

-Ability to express ones feelings and wishes without hurting others. Assertive people are confident; direct in dealing with others assertive people have a high self-esteem.



Values – Beliefs, which guide people on what is right and wrong. There are

– Social values

– Cultural values

– Moral values

Values related to wealth are:

– Love

– Honesty

– Reliability

– Fairness

– Justice

– Respect

– Faithfulness

– Humility

– Persistence

– Chastity

Love – intense emotion of attachment, affection, warmth, fondness, regard for a person or something

How should love guide a Christian in relation to wealth creation?

Honesty – quality of being truthful, fair trustworthy, sincere, genuine. The opposite of honesty is dishonesty.

Reliability – being dependable, faithful, predictable, unfailing. The ability of being relied upon and keeping promises

Fairness – condition of being unbiased, free from discrimination.

Justice – fair dealings with the people, as they deserve according to the law. Being fair, giving people what’s due to them. Opposite of justice is injustice.


-Quality of having high regard for somebody or something. Politeness. It’s important to respect other people’s property.

Humility – quality of not thinking that you are better than others. Being humble. Opposite of humility is pride, being proud. Those who humble themselves shall be exalted.

Faithfulness – quality of remaining loyal or true to someone. Christians should be faithful at their places of work and in allocating their wealth to God’s work.

Those who are entrusted with public resources to manage on behalf of the people should show a high degree of faithfulness.

Persistence – quality to persevere. Quality to continue steadfastly, unrelentingly despite opposition e.g. the unjust judge and widow, job =, Jeremiah are people who persisted.

Chastity – a state of being pure, holy, innocent modest. It is abstinence from actions that may make one impure before God.

-Christians should strive hard not to defile their bodies in search of wealth

-Christians should strive to live holy lives, avoid prostitution, drug abuse; corruption

-people use sexual favor to get jobs or promotion. Christians should thus avoid such.


Revision questions

  1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth
  2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth
  3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today
  4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability
  5. Give ways in which the Kenyan government is alleviating the high levels of poverty
  6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today





– Law, order, justice are essential for the survival of any society

– Following laws leads to order and justice lack of following leads to disorder and injustice laws of Kenya are laid down in the constitution.

  1. Law

Established rules by an authority to regulate human behavior in the community Schools laws, religious laws, factory laws, hospital laws etc. laws differ from society to society. Laws are dynamic. Laws cover all

Aspects of life.

  1. Order

Condition brought about by obedience to set rules or laws. Order leads to peaceful co – existence in the society. Where there is order, things are done systematically. The opposite of order is disorder.

Types of laws

  1. Non – legal laws – no court action e.g. school rules
  2. Customary traditional laws – based on culture, social traditions. They have to agree with state laws.

They are respected by state.

  1. Statutory laws / legal laws – laws made by local council or national government and citizens are expected to obey them.


Types of statutory laws

  1. a) Civil laws – made by parliament on issues such as taxes, labor, divorce etc
  2. b) Criminal law – on crime / punishment
  3. c) Constitutional law – matters of state and governance
  4. d) Company law
  5. e) Religious laws e.g. Islamic law ‘sharia’
  6. Justice

Treating others the way they deserve in relation to the law. It’s administration of rightful dealings in a fair manner according to their actions. A just society follows rules and administers legal action to those who offend others or disobey rules. Justice means treating people the same way without discrimination.


  1. Importance of law, order and justice
  2. a) They are essential to preserve harmony and protect people
  3. b) Laws guide people and ensure people’s rights are protected.
  4. c) They protect people’s property and enable people to live in harmony
  5. d) They protect the consumer from exploitation
  6. e) They safeguard religious freedom
  7. f) Laws control power of those in authority and promote political stability
  8. g) Provides stability, encouraging economic growth
  9. h) Helps to control discontentment among people
  10. i) Helps implementation of taxes effectively
  11. j) Provides / help in maintenance of security
  12. k) Ensures human rights are upheld
  13. l) Enables the government to protect its citizens from internal or external threats.
  14. m) International law regulates relations between countries.






Citizen – person who is a member of a state, kingdom, empire. A person who has full rights as a member of a country by birth, decent, registration, naturalization.

Rights – legal claims that one is entitled to from the government

Duty – ones responsibility to the government.


1) Right to life – to live securely

2) Right to education

3) Right to liberty / freedom e.g. one should not be imprisoned, detained, without trial. One is innocent until proven guilty

4) Right to protection of property

5) Right to own a family – right to marry and raise a family

6) Right to health

7) Freedom of movement

Right to freedom of association

9) Right to freedom of assembly

10) Freedom of religion

11) Right to own property

12) Right to equality – non discrimination

13) Protection of freedom of expression and speech (own opinions, ideas)

Children have rights e.g. Right to life, education, parental care, health, protection from exploitation, right to identity etc.

Duties of citizens (responsibilities)

1) Pay taxes to the government

2) Respect the flag and national anthem

3) Respect those in authority

4) Respect the laws of the land

5) Register as a voter and voter in national elections

6) Be responsible at work

7) Participate in national development

Promote peace and harmony in the society

9) Report errant members of the society to law enforcement agents

10) protect the environmental – clean, plant trees, avoid poaching etc


Some of the practices that promote law, order and justice are:

  1. a) Punishment of offenders

People who committed offences such as stealing, murder, witchcraft were punished through death, curses, paying heavy fines etc. this promoted law, order, justice

  1. b) Installation of rules, kings, chiefs, elders

They were installed to maintain law, order and to execute justice in their areas of jurisdiction

  1. c) Administration of oaths

– Administered by specialists and are used as a method of establishing and maintaining law and order

  1. d) Making of covenants

– Covenants were made if there was a conflict between two communities. They would promise to live in peace and harmony.

  1. e) Observing of taboos and customary law

Taboos were prohibitions. Those who went against taboos were severely punished

  1. f) The kinship system – defined how people related one to another
  2. g) Rites of passage – ensured customs, laws were adhered to
  3. h) Religious practices- such as praying, singing, sacrificing and giving of offerings had the effect of maintaining order.


God initiated Law, order, and justice.

  1. God’s creation is orderly. God desires order
  2. Man was created with a conscience to know right from wrong sin has consequences or punishment.

God does punish disobedience i.e. justice

  1. God instituted the laws as part of his plan for salvation e.g. law of circumcision, Torah (10 commandments), circumcision of the heart, laws on what to eat etc.
  2. God’s law governed kingship in Israel. National prosperity depended on a king’s ruler ship. Kings were to ensure law and order
  3. In the New Testament John the Baptist urged people to observe the law (social justice).
  4. Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is based on law, order and justice. There should be fair treatment for all people
  5. Jesus said that the Law of Moses was given to guide people
  6. Christians should obey the law of the land and respect those in authority
  7. The apostolic teachings stress the need for law, order, justice (1 Cro.14: 33)
  8. Christians should be orderly.
  9. The birth of Jesus was orderly. His ministry was also orderly hence should Christians.


Social disorder is a state of confusion or lack of order in the society


1) Discrimination

2) Inequitable distribution of wealth, resources

3) Crime

4) Racism

5) Tribalism

6) Sexism


Discrimination is unfair treatment. Discrimination is on basis of

– Race

– Tribe

– Sex / gender

People or a particular person is singled out and treated with disfavor or distaste. It is showing bias or prejudice.

Causes of discrimination

  1. Culture
  2. Prejudice – bias original from opinions that have no known basis or supporting facts – stereotypes
  3. Ignorance e.g. on HIV /AIDS
  4. Social status – ones position in a society

Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources

– This is when riches of family, community, and nation are not fairly shared out due to Selfishness or poor planning. Some areas are marginalized.

Racism – unfair treatment of people because of their race

Tribalism – discrimination on basis of ethnic group

Crime – an offence against state, normally settled in court. It’s antisocial behavior causing disorder.

Causes of crime (Why people commit crime)

  1. Poverty
  2. Public mistrust for law enforces
  3. Lack of parental guidance
  4. Wide gap between the rich and the poor
  5. Greed for power, money
  6. Materialism
  7. Drug and substance abuse


– Discrimination against people because of gender

– Women are discriminated in areas such as jobs, no promotion for women, oppression of women at home, cultural values demeaning the status of women, wife beating / men beating, female genital mutilation (FGM) early children marriages etc.

Remedies to social disorder

1) Rehabilitation for drugs users / abusers

2) Punishment for offenders of crime

Forms of punishment

– Imprisonment

– Payment of fines

– Corporal punishment

– Probation

– Being assigned community work

– Being placed under house arrest

– Learning in approved schools, Juvenile homes

3) Equitable distribution of national resources

– Develop marginalized areas

– Create jobs

4) Campaign against drug abuse

5) The public to use hot lines to report crime to police

6) Preach against racism, tribalism, and preach equality, freedom and interaction with all people

7) People to be sensitized to appreciate and respect different ethnics groups

Promote national unity through education /cultural programmes

9) Creation of more national schools so as to have students from all backgrounds

10) Encourage domestic tourism

11) Enlighten women on their rights

12) Employment on merit

13) Rich countries to share wealth with the poor


Transformation is to completely change the attitude, character, and well being of the society

  1. a) Christian participation in the social life

– Christians are involved in the preaching of the gospel in many places in the country. They use print and electronic media to spread the gospel.

– Christians have shown concern for the destitute and victims of violence in the society by building homes for them and providing them with food and clothing.

– Christians run schools, vocational institutions, and universities providing educational services

– Christians offer medical services to the society

– They speak openly against sexual immorality, murder, bribery, corruption, abortion etc.

– They show compassion to those in need the poor, HIV / AIDS orphans, widows, widowers, aged etc.

– They offer guidance and counseling to dysfunctional families (the pastors, those trained to do counseling – almost all pastors get a training in guidance and counseling)

  1. b) Christians participation in the political life

– Christians participate in the political life by advocating for fair distribution of wealth

– They offer prayers for government, political leaders

– They exercise their right by voting

– They also participating in the political life by standing up for elections (Vying for elections)

  1. c) Christian participation in economic life

– Christians participate in economic life by paying taxes to the government

– By contributing in collection of funds for construction of churches, schools, hospitals

– They invest in business that promotes their own development as well as the development of the country.

– They provide financial resources in order to assist others to start economic activities or self employment

– They discourage business practices such as using faulty scales, hiking of prices cheating in business etc and encourage proper acquisition of wealth


The government and the church interact at various levels and in different areas

  1. a) Religious leaders give advice to the state
  2. b) The church speaks against corruption, robbery, rape, abortion, vices which the government is fighting
  3. c) The church is the conscience of the state
  4. d) Both educate the citizens on the constitution and their rights
  5. e) The church preaches peace, love, unity, order
  6. f) The state needs support of the church in mobilizing citizens to adopt government policies
  7. g) Both are involved in rehabilitation of prisoners
  8. h) The church builds schools and other institutions that supplement government institutions.
  9. i) The church is involved in formulation of educational curriculum.

However the church differs with government on various issues such as

  1. a) Use of condoms (Some churches opposed to this)
  2. b) Use of live bullets by the law enforces when curbing riots
  3. c) Fight on corruption a thorn to the church since state leaders are involved
  4. d) Issue of death penalty – church been fighting against death penalty to convicts
  5. The government lifted the death penalty as a form of punishment in the year 2009.

Revision questions

  1. State ways in which Christians can promote peace/unity in the society
  2. Why should Christians take part in voting?



Science – subject field that deals with a systematic study of our surroundings and behavior of materials in the universe

It is based on observation, experimentation and measurement.

Technology – application of science to achieve desired objectives.

Environment – our surroundings – both natural and human made i.e. mountains, lakes, land, forests, animals, buildings, flowers etc


Ways science and technology has improved human lives:

1) Improvement of crop production – a quality seeds, fertilizers leading to improved yields

2) Better nutrition, health care, medical services

3) Improvement of livestock production through artificial insemination, quality medicine leading to more milk production.

4) It has led to development of efficient means of transport – land, air, seas

5) Work has been made easier and enjoyable. There is use of machines, automation, and use of computers.

6) People’s lives have been spared, saved e.g. through life saving machines (ICU), incubators

7) Business transactions are being done through the internet

Communication has been made easy – fax, email, short text messages on mobile phones etc

9) Research is ongoing for incurable diseases i.e. HIV / AIDS, cancer

10) There is better management of environment

11) Technology has made the world a global village

12) Through family planning methods, it’s easier to control population growth

13) There’s a better security system through use of scanners, alarms, electrified fences etc.

14) Improvement of learning through e–learning

15) There’s easier movement from one country to another

Negative effects of science and technology

  1. People use medicine to commit suicide
  2. Increase of crime, fraud and death through modern means of communication
  3. Destruction of family relationships
  4. Breakdown of community names, values morals, breakdown of family-es
  5. Terrorism
  6. Greed for money / materialism
  7. Unemployment – replacement of personnel by machines
  8. Health hazards such as accidents in factories
  9. Pollution, air poisoning


  1. Euthanasia
  2. Blood transfusion
  3. Organ transplant
  4. Genetic engineering
  5. Plastic surgery


It’s a Greek word, which means an easy and painless death. It is ‘mercy killing’ ending a person’s life so as to alleviate them from experiencing pain.

Its practiced with the sick person’s knowledge

It is involuntary when it’s practiced against or without the sick person’s consent

It’s done by

  1. a) Injecting an overdose of sleeping pills to the sick person
  2. b) Switching off life support machine
  3. c) Exposing the person with chronic pneumonia to very cold air.

Christians view on Euthanasia

Christians are opposed to euthanasia for several reasons such as

  1. a) Life is sacred; a gift from God and only God can take away human life
  2. b) Suffering is part of human life
  3. c) Euthanasia is against medical ethos, which demands that doctors and nurses work for the sustenance of human life and alleviation of suffering but not to terminate it.
  4. d) Jesus has power over sickness and through his name all sickness are healed
  5. e) Accepting euthanasia discourages medical research on vaccines that may cure various diseases.
  6. f) Euthanasia discourages patients and makes them to lose hope in life. They may feel unwanted and rejected.



Blood transfusion

– It’s the process of injecting a person’s blood into another person through his/her veins. The giver is a donor the receiver is a recipient.

Reasons for blood transfusion

  1. When a person is suffering from acute anemia (little blood in the body) low blood level.
  2. To restore blood lost during fatal accidents, wars, or childbirth
  3. To maintain blood levels for patients undergoing major operations
  4. To correct the low hemoglobin level of some patients

5 Blood has to be screened for any diseases, and then kept in blood bank after determining the blood group. The transfusion should be in a hygienic way. The equipment used should be sterilized

  1. Donors should not be below 16 years or above 65 years

Alternatives to blood transfusion

  1. a) Volume expanders – increase fluid levels in the body
  2. b) Growth factors – intra operative / post operative
  3. c) Blood salvage – same blood when on surgery is saved then transfused back to the patient

Christian view on blood transfusion

  1. a) Some Christian’s believe it is wrong to take blood from a healthy person and transfuse it to another person.
  2. b) Blood is life and life cannot be taken from one person to another
  3. c) Blood transfusion is essential as it saves life
  4. d) Blood transfusion can transmit dangerous diseases like HIV / AIDS and Hepatitis B
  5. e) God has given Christians the intelligence and capability to make the right decision and choice

Organ transplant

– This is the removal of a defective organ and replacing it with a healthy one. Body organs transplanted are kidneys, heart and eyes small intestines, pan crease.

– The purpose is to replace the damaged organ of a recipient

– Common transplants are the heart, kidney, eyes from living and the dead (heart) within a span of hours. Eyes can be transplanted from animals.

Christian view on organ transplant

  1. a) It saves life hence acceptable to some
  2. b) Its transferring human life from one person to another
  3. c) It’s wrong to transplant from animals – view by some Christians
  4. d) Some support organ transplant by referring to the story of creation of Eve from parts of Adam
  5. e) It is part of human beings continuing with the creation work of God.
  6. f) It is an expression of love and concern for those suffering as taught by Jesus Christ.

Genetic engineering

– It’s a scientific technique used by scientists to change the biological characteristics of living organisms by deliberately altering the structure of individual genes.

– There are genetically modified foods, genetically engineered seeds, test tube babies, human clones, and genes of human insulin.

Human cloning

This is a form of genetic engineering. It’s a creation of genetically identical copy of a human being, human cell.

Twins are a form of natural cloning

There’s therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning (human cloning)

Therapeutic cloning is when cells from an adult are used in creating medicine or for research

Reproduction cloning is the making of human beings

More than 90% of cloning has failed.

Animals cloned have died young, had cancers or arthritis.

Human cloning is illegal worldwide

Genetic cells are used to treat Alzheimer, heart attack, cancer

Test tube babies are different from human cloning. Test tube babies are where the egg and sperm is fused together outside the body.

In cloning, a needle like device is used to draw out the cells from an embryo, then preserved using chemicals, then put in a womb/uterus to grow. Some do not need a sperm cell; they use other body cells for fertilization.

Reasons for advocating human cloning

Can clone people whose genetic composition is of a genius, people with special abilities or talents

Can be able to bring, revive back great extinct characteristics.

Those who support it believes it can reduce immorality

Reasons against human cloning

  1. God is the sole creator. Cloning takes the place of God.
  2. It de –humanizes human beings purpose of human reproduction
  3. It destroys uniqueness of each individual (Cloning is an exact copy)
  4. It can be abused and used to create antisocial people (rapists, thieves)
  5. May create deformed people
  6. Its un-ethical, immoral experiment. Its destruction of the embryo hence abortion
  7. 95% of clones have failed (animal) most animals died
  8. It’s illegal
  9. Closed animals died of cancer, had arthritis, deformities and an early death
  10. Cloning may bring a destructive copy of humans

Advantages of genetic engineering

  1. Implanting genes that are diseases free in people, plant and animals could prevent diseases.
  2. Genetic crops yield more
  3. Helps to determine the biological parent in case of dispute on babies (DNA)
  4. Helps to increase disease resistance in crops and altering animal traits in plants and animals
  5. Assists in classifying blood during screening before it’s transfused to another person.




Christian view of genetic engineering

  1. Christians support genetic engineering that is beneficial to human beings e.g. Cure of genetic diseases, production of drugs, plant and animals
  2. Human beings are made in God’s image and are loved by God with or without defects.
  3. The dignity of the human being is eroded or disregarded and should be upheld.
  4. Christians oppose cloning and test tube babies
  5. it’s against God’s will or teaching

Plastic surgery

– It’s to change or mould the shape of something, to enhance or restore an area of the body

– It’s repairing or improving of damaged, diseased or unsatisfactory shaped parts of the body with pieces of skin or bone taken from other parts of the body.

– Skin grafting is the most common type of plastic surgery

– Plastic surgery is done on cleft lips i.e. cosmetic surgery, breast surgery – reduction or enlargement, surgery done to look younger.

Reasons for plastic surgery

– It can help restore ones confidence or self – esteem

– It enhances beauty, attractiveness or youthfulness

– It enhances a person’s life and can be a life changing procedure

– It may help a person to get a new job


– Its expensive

– Can lead to transmission of diseases

Christian views on plastic surgery

– Some support it, as it has some benefits

– Some Christian oppose plastic surgery in order to look younger

– Some argue that some people do it because of a lack of self – acceptance, low self esteem hence should work on such issues first.


In Genesis 1, man was given the responsibility of taking care of the environment

Ways of taking care of the environment

  1. Cleaning up the environment, clean up rivers
  2. Educating people on the importance of conservation
  3. Dispose industrial wastes properly
  4. Enforce use of environment – friendly fuel (unleaded fuel)
  5. Factory owners to supply protective wear to factory workers
  6. Planting of trees and flowers
  7. Establishing airports, industries, and disco clubs away from residential areas.
  8. Advocate for laws to be passed to minimize noise from vehicles, aircrafts, and entertainment centers.
  9. Waste to be managed through

Reuse e.g. bottles

Recycle plastic bottles to be recycled to plastic bins, old newspapers to be recycled to tissue papers.

Recover – burning waste products to produce electricity

Waste can be managed to reduce use of ‘Throw away’ goods e.g. batteries to use of electricity.


Its introduction into the environment of substances or energy that is liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems

In simple terms pollution is the contamination of the environment.

Substances that cause pollution are called pollutants. Some of the pollutants include;

Industrial affluent




Ultra – violet rays from nuclear plants




Waste heat

Exhaust gases from automobiles

Types of pollution

  1. a) Water pollution
  2. p) Air pollution
  3. q) Land pollution
  4. r) Radiation pollution
  5. s) Sound pollution (noise)

Water pollution

This is the increase of substances in water in excess of its rightful chemical components thus making it unsuitable for human, animal or plant use.

– Disposing domestic and industrial waste into rivers, lakes, seas etc pollutes water.

– Disposing agricultural chemicals pesticides into water bodies.

– Oil spilling into waters

– Poor sanitation bathing or washing clothes in rivers or dams

Effects of water pollution

  1. Causes diseases, which are communicable such as cholera, typhoid, and dysentery.
  2. Leads to death of marine life – birds (Flamingo) fish by oil spills
  3. Mercury (metal) leads, silver are poisonous. They kill organisms.
  4. Water becomes unfit for human consumption

Air pollution

– Presence of contaminants in the atmosphere caused by

  1. Smoke
  2. Fumes
  3. Dust – from mines, quarries

– When there is an increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that’s pollution

– Other major atmospheric pollutants include gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

– Nitrogen Oxide (NO) i.e. fumes from vehicles, aircrafts, and industries


(i) Leads to diseases such as bronchitis, asthma

(ii) Leads to depletion of the Ozone layer leading to ultra – violet rays of the sun penetrating to the earth causing skin cancer, cataracts (eye problems), and low plant yields.

(iii) Causes rusting of roofs

(iv) Causes acid rains

(v) Carbon dioxide (02) in the atmosphere has led to global warming.

(vi) Formation of smog (thick fog), which can lead to accidents.

(vii) Colored rain due to large amounts of dust in the atmosphere

(viii) Eyesight loss due to gas leakages from industrial plants.

Land pollution

Land pollution is any physical or chemical alteration to land, which causes change in its use and renders it incapable of beneficial use without treatment.

– Improper or excessive use of insecticides, pesticides makes land acidic

– Land is also polluted by improper disposal of waste / garbage, broken glasses.


(i) Waste is an eye sore spoiling the beauty of the environment

(ii) Broken glass can lead to injuries

(iii) Open mining leaves pits, which are a danger to people and animals.

Noise pollution

– Experienced especially in urban centers, near roads, running water, mining areas, airports, music from bars, nightclubs etc.

– An instrument called sound meter measures noise. The lowest unit is O Decitel, which is okay. More than 80 decibels is harmful to the ear.

Noise over 80 decibels can cause (effects)

– Deafness, hearing problems

– Psychological disorders – frustrations, irritation

– Insomnia

– Shock due to sudden noise

– Cracking of walls

Noise can be minimized by

Construction of sound proof buildings

Location of residential areas away from industries, airports, bars, main roads

Banning of unnecessary hooting, playing of loud music in public vehicles

Installing silencers in generators

Education people on the effects of noise pollution

Pollution caused by radiation

Mainly in developed countries

-Atomic explosions e.g. Hiroshima / Nagasaki in Japan in 1945. The side effects of mutations of born children. Some children born with deformi-ties. The radiation caused chromosome mutations. Some mutations on the cells of the parent / grandparents.

Nuclear power stations also a danger

Medical equipment e.g. X ray machines when one is over exposed to these radiations (x – rays) it can lead to development of cancer.



This is slow encroachment of desert – like a condition to land that was previously productive making it desolate, uncultivatable and uninhabitable. Human activity accelerates creation of deserts.

Causes of deserts

  1. Natural
  2. a) Persistent rains in a semi – arid area
  3. b) Exposure of an area to very high, very cold temperatures
  4. c) Inadequate rainfall for a long period of time
  5. Human

Human activities that lead to desertification are

(i) Cutting down of trees (deforestation) for land use such as building, industries, and not replacing them.

(ii) Use of water from wells to irrigate land. Its harmful especially salty water – salt on soil salination is toxic to soils.

(iii) Incorrect use of pesticides and fertilizers destroy soil nutrients.

(iv) Industrialization – industries emit carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to formation of acid rain, which leads to unproductive land hence desertification

(v) Overgrazing especially among the pastoralist communities

(vi) Poor farming methods like cultivation on riverbanks and slopes, which causes soil erosion, leading to desertification.


Land can be restored through the following ways;

(i) Removal of people, livestock from certain areas e.g. forests

(ii) Installation of good drainage systems

(iii) Reduction of water logging / salination

(iv) Use of alternative sources of fuel such as wind, solar, biogas instead of cutting down trees to use as fuel (charcoal)

(v) Advocate for penalties to those who pollute the environment – factories

(vi) Replace trees that are cut down

(vii) Build water storage facilities to store rain water then use it for irrigation

(viii) Educate people on the importance of the environment

(ix) Use of manure instead of harmful fertilizers

Emulate Prof. Wangari Maathai implanting trees – 8th October 2004 she was awarded the Nobel peace prize, an international award, for her efforts in preserving the environment.

Revision questions

  1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological discoveries?
  2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?
  3. How has science and technology improved human life?
  4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society?






Q1. What is the meaning of Christian Ethics?

This is the study of human conduct or behavior.

It is about how Christians make choices in their daily lives guided by Christian principles and value.

Q2. What is the basis or sources or foundation of Christian Ethics?

The Bible/Biblical scripture (holy)

The natural law

Human experience and reason

The Christian community – preachers

Situation Ethics

Secular/Civil Law

Q3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life

(a) Critical thinking

(b) Creative thinking

(c) Decision – making

(d) Self-esteem

(e) Assertiveness



Q1. Explain seven Christian teachings on male/female relationships

Male/female were created as equal human beings: created in the image and likeness of God.

Male/female created for companionship, help/ partners/ complements each other.

Both are co-creator with God – done through procreation.

Union between both is consummated in marriage.

Relationship is based on love and respect/chastity.

Man/husband is the head of the family.

Each man to have his own wife and wife own husband.

Husband and wife should not deny each other conjugal rights.

Youth should abstain from sex until marriage.

Male/female body is temple of the Lord.

Short periods of abstinence are allowed among married people but with consent from each other.

Christians appreciate different roles of men and women in the church e.g. leadership in choir for women and men.


Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of human sexuality

Human sexuality is regarded as sacred and secret in many African communities.

The sacredness of sex is related to the power to transmit life – procreation.

It is taboo to discuss sex matters freely especially in the presence of children.

Grandparents who are free from any tying job teach sex education.

Young people are prepared for adult life in the context of age group e.g. games of sexual nature take place within an age group. The age group has control of each other and there is no sex whatsoever.

During initiation ceremonies, vigorous sex education is provided to the initiates.

They are taught about sex, its secrets and the mystery of manhood and womanhood.

Girls are expected to remain virgins

Rape offenders are severely punished.

Boys and girls are not allowed to mix.

Division of labor is on the basis of sex.

Roles of boys and girls are taught from childhood e.g. by copying their parents.

Q2. Explain Christian attitude towards human sexuality

Sex is sacred.

Man and woman are equal before God.

It is for procreation.

Man and woman are complimentary.

Both were created in the image of God.

They became one in marriage.

Sex is only allowed in marriage.

Virginity is valued.

Human beings have the ability to control sexual desires.

Chastity is a virtue.

All forms of irresponsible sexual behavior are condemned.

Q3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?

 By practicing fornication/sex before marriage.

Adultery – sex outside marriage

Through prostitution

By practicing bestiality

Through homosexuality/lesbianism/gayism


Rape/defilement of minors


Pornographic literature – using of technological devices in sex

Q4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya daily?

Lack of self-control among some men

Drugs and drug abuse

Permissiveness in society

Influence from the mass media

Mental illness – mad people

Erosion of the African culture/moral values

Devil worship/strange cults/false religion

Breakdown of religion values

Irresponsible parenthood

Indecent dressing

Leniency of the Law/no punishment for criminal



Responsible Sexual Behavior

Q 5 what is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior?

Responsible sex is between male and female.

Sexual intercourse is allowed between married people.

Faithfulness is a virtue in this: Both partners must avoid adultery.

Responsible sexual behavior means exercising self-control.

It entails obedience to God’s commands hence a Christian has to shun forbidden sexual behavior e.g. fornication.

Body temple of the Lord, Our sexual relationships should uphold human dignity and respect for our bodies.

The Bible teaches that whatever we do with our bodies should be for the glory of God (1 Cor. 7:19-20).

Q6. List the difference types of irresponsible sexual behavior

  • Homosexuality (lesbianism, sodomy)
  • Bestiality
  • Masturbation
  • Rape
  • Incest
  • Prostitution
  • Fornication
  • Abortion

Q7. Explain the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior

It defiles the body, which is the temple of God.

It is wickedness.

It is unholy and dirty before God.

It is spiritually unclean.

Those involved break the commandment of God.

It involves coveting – a sin.

Polygamy is condemned and considered irresponsible.

Q8. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behavior

It can lead to sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS).

Can lead to pregnancy and then abortion.

If married people are involved (adultery) divorce may occur.


Children suffer lack of parental care due to divorce as a result of adultery.

It may lead to street children.

It discourages young people from marrying.

It can lead to fights, quarrels, misunderstanding and friction.

Young people can chop out of school due to pregnancy/AIDS.

Can lead to single parenthood.

Withdrawing from family and society

Self-pity and loneliness

Psychological problems e.g. depression


Suicide and death

Unwanted/unexpected pregnancies

Aggressiveness and violence


Q5. State the different types of families

Nuclear family

Single parent family




Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of marriage

Marriage is viewed as the focus of existence, i.e. the point where the three members of the community meet (i.e. living, departed and the unborn).

A rhythm of life through which everybody must participate

Marriage is a duty/a must/compulsory

Failure to marry means the person has rejected society and the society rejects him in turn.

Those who do not marry are considered as sub-human or lawbreakers.

Marriage is God ordained.

Young boys and girls are prepared for this sacred institution during initiation.

They are taught everything pertaining to marriage e.g. sex.

Children cement the marriage.

Q2. What is the importance of children in Traditional African Society?

They help their parents at old age.

Cement a marriage: One without children is considered incomplete.

Children (boys) provide security at home and the community.

They help in the perpetuation of the family and community name.

The departed are reborn through naming of children.

Provide labor

It is through children that (new) members meet and get to know each other. Young children are introduced to their relatives e.g. during initiation, marriage etc.

Children uphold the statue of parents.

Q3. What is the Christian teaching about marriage?

The church defines marriage as a covenant.

The Bible teaches that marriage is a divine institution.

Marriage is for procreation.

Marriage is for companionship.

It is for fulfillment of mutual love.

Marriage is a remedy against sin – fornication.

It should be monogamous.

Marriage should be permanent – no divorce.

Without or with children marriage is complete.

Sex outside marriage is forbidden.

Q4. What is the importance of courtship period in Traditional African Societies?

It helped in identifying a suitable marriage partner.

The two families involved established a firm relationship.

The boy and the girl had a chance to learn each other’s character.

It gives an opportunity to know whether the boy and girl are related.

Allows time for exchange of gifts between the two families, thus a firm relationship is established.

Time to negotiate the bride-wealth

Boy and girl are instructed about their duties and responsibilities.

Q5. Why are many people opting for celibacy instead of marriage today?

Celibacy is used to refer to the unmarried.

Many remain single today because of Christianity – to serve God.

Some are born Eunuchs – cannot father children.

Education – one may want to pursue education

Career demands – too demanding to allow one get time for a family.

Lack of guidance and counseling on marriage and family

Discouragement from failing marriages

Economic reasons – one may not have money for a big house, wedding and bringing up a family.

Poor health e.g. epilepsy

Economic independence – whereby young people feel satisfied when they have enough money

Parental interference – or whom their son should marry.

Disappointing relationships



Q1. What is work?


Work means any human activity, be it manual, intellectual or both.

Q2. List any six reasons why people work

People work for self-satisfaction and fulfillment

For personal development

In order to acquire basic needs of life

To give life meaning, direction and dignity.

To provide service for the community.

To acquire wealth and status in the community.

In order to socialize and grow as a member of a community

To attain independence and stop depending on others.

In order to help others e.g. beggars.

Q3. Explain the Traditional African attitude towards work

Work was understood as a fundamental dimension of human existence here on earth.

It is through work that human beings were able to change, reorganize and restructure their society.

It was regarded as a recreational activity as through it, people built their houses, places of worship, produced art like sculpture and carving.

Work was highly valued and the dignity of work was taught early in life.

Each member had his own role to play e.g. men went out to hunt, herd etc accompanied with boys while mother did house work with the help of daughters.

Grandparents taught the youth how to behave and baby seated.

They believed work was God’s will and so they invoked God’s name through prayer, sacrifice to bless their work.

They had freedom over their work. No supervision. They decided when to work, when to rest but rest came after work.

Work was related to leisure, for people sang, danced and told stories as they worked.

Through work, many people exploited talents or learned e.g. building houses, song etc.

All were workers – work was compulsory.

Work brought people together – solidarity. This is because they shared work (communal work).

Q3. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in the modern society

Level of education – determine the type of work.

Availability of job opportunities

Stiff competition

Work is personal unlike in Traditional African Communities where it was social.

Negative attitude to work, this is where some people hate manual work.

People work for personal gain and gratification

Work is a commodity to be sold to the highest bidder.

Q4. What are the rights of employers?

They have a right to a fair taxation in their business.

Get profits from their business.

Have association with other employers

Expect loyalty form their employees.

Receive from their employees work input as agreed upon on the employment contract.

Operate without being black mailed by trade unions.

Open business ventures without Government restrictions.

Q5. State the duties of employees

To carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision e.g. is punctual, present etc.

To respect and protect the property of the employer.

To resort to peaceful means of solving problems, and not destructive ways e.g. strike.

To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development

To respect the employer and fellow employees.

Q6. Why has child labor become common in Kenya?

Definition: – This is the employment of children on a full time basis.


Their labor is cheap.

They are not union sable and can therefore not fight for proper terms and conditions of service.

They can easily be lured and fired.

They do not have qualifications in any skill so as to negotiate for their terms.

They are looked at as a source of income by their parents or guardians.

Q7. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?

High population – There are too few job opportunities as compared to the many young people.

Hatred for manual work – many youth are looking for white-collar jobs despising the available “blue jobs.”

Bribery and corruption – In the job market whereby the rich are able to give while the poor though with good qualifications cannot secure a job.

Lack of skills and capital to start self-employment

Bad governance and poor economic policies from the government

SAPS – Structural Adjustment of Programmes i.e. Policy – not giving funds has led to poverty.

International policies of globalization that have affected the agric sector that has been the greatest employer in Kenya

Retrenchment of workers in the Civil Service and Private Sectors

Increase in crime that has aggravated insecurity in the country. This has discouraged local and international investors.

Q8. What can the Government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?

By creating more job opportunities

By starting more industries

Increase of workers by 10% after every 10 years

Encouraging self-employment whereby loans and space are given

Starting of a school curriculum (8.4.4.) – starting that gears students into blue-collar jobs.

Starting the District Funds for Rural Development = C.D.F.

Stopping rural –urban migration

By Africanisation of jobs – sending away foreign workers






Q1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned

It leads to conflicts/quarrels within the family.

Misuse of family resources

May lead to addiction.

Leads to irresponsible sexual behaviors e.g. prostitution, adultery, and fornication

Could lead to loss of income.

May lead to irresponsibility, which leads to accidents such as motor accidents.

Q2. Write down 5 ways in which modern Christian use their leisure time

Organize/attend religious seminars.

Participate in church choir/concerts

Offers services to the aged

Read religious literature e.g. Bible

Keep the church and its environment clean.

Have fellowship with other Christians

Initiate self-help projects to assist the needy.

Provide guidance and counseling to the community.

Preach the word of God

Visit relatives and friends

Be with family members

Listen to Christian preaching/songs on radio

Q3. Give 5 ways in which drug abuse could affect a Christian family

Drains family resources

Fights in families may occur.

Leads to diseases

Leads to family break-ups/separation/divorce

It reduces one’s capacity to be productive in the family.

Results in making wrong decisions/judgment

Leads to denial of conjugal rights

Leads to loss of religious values

Leads to poor role models for children

Leads to crime/imprisonment

Q4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug abuse

Practicing self-control

Praying against being tempted.

Seeking guidance and counseling

Avoiding the company of those who misuse drugs

Reading literature on the correct use of drugs

Participating in activities that promote proper use of drugs/healthy activities

Q5. Why is leisure important in the life of Christians?

Gives one time to visit the sick/needy

For dedicating oneself to God/worshiping God

Provide an opportunity to fellowship with others

It allows one to develop the different talents given by God.

It gives one an opportunity to meet new friends/family.

One is able to read the word of God.

Provides an opportunity for one to preach/evangelize

Provides an opportunity to take care of the environment

Provides an opportunity to guide and counsel others and be guided

Provides time to rest to gain lost energy.

Q6. What factors have contributed to the misuse or leisure in Kenya today?

Too much money/wealth/availability of drugs/contraceptives

Inadequate facilities

Lack of proper guidance/education on how to use leisure


Inability to make right decisions

Bad company/peer pressure

Watching/reading phonographic materials/negative media

Misunderstanding in families/frustrations

Inability to balance between different activities


Lack of role models


Q7. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya today

Poor role models


Peer pressure/curiosity

Irresponsible parenthood

Influence of mass media

Availability of drugs/wealth

Lack of guidance and counseling



Moral decay/permissiveness in the society

Lack of knowledge/ignorance on use of drugs


Urbanization/west culture



Q1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth

It is a blessing from God.

When wealth comes with responsibility.

Wealth can create a sense of false independence.

It should be acquired in just and honest way.

Wrong attitude to wealth leads to idolatry.

One should seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling.

It is wrong to discriminate others on basis of material possessions.

Christians should share whatever wealth they have.

Wealth is not supreme good.

Wealth gives people independence so that they do not beg.

Wealth may bring suffering and insecurity.

God is the owner of wealth and people should realize that they are only stewards.

Q2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth

Riches acquired through just and fair means are not condemned.

Even if wealth is acquired through just means it should not be idolized.

Failing to use wealth to glorify God

God is the source of all riches.

Wealth is acquired through obedience to God’s laws.

People ought to take care of their wealth not misuse.

Wealth should be equally distributed and not concentrated in the hands of a few.

Wealth should be used to develop the nation’s infrastructure.

Q3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today

Indulge in alcohol and drugs

Engaging in immoral practices e.g. prostitution

Gambling which might lead to loss of wealth

Being luxurious/extravagant

Unfair class competition among the wealthy

Using wealth to undermine others e.g. assassination

Using wealth to promote crime

Engaging in risky/dangerous sports or projects e.g. motor racing, wrestling.

Using wealth selfishly/lack of social concern

Using wealth to engage young people into immoral practices e.g. sex tourism.

Q4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability

One may indulge in alcohol/drug abuse at the expense of family needs.

Engage in immorality/extra-marital sexual relations/prostitution

Leads to misunderstanding on how to use wealth/invest

One uses wealth to engage in gambling.

Spoils children/encourages laziness.

Arrogance/pride/showing off

One becomes obsessed with wealth and fails to care for the family love – has no time for the family.

Inheritance squabbles in case of death.

One fails to meet the basic needs for the family.

Q5. Give ways in which Kenyan Government is alleviating levels of poverty

Offering free education

Provision of C.D.F

Allocation of bursary to the needy

Creating and enabling environmental employment in formal and informal sectors (easy access to loans)

Providing market for agricultural products e.g. K.C.C, Cereal Board

Provision of low cost health services

Improving infrastructure e.g. roads, electricity

Providing youth fund through the Ministry of Youth Affairs.

Q6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today

Geographical factors e.g. adverse climate conditions.

Historical/colonialism and social factors e.g. poor family background

Political instability, which may lead to civil wars

Poor governance

Regional imbalance of natural resources

Low level of technology



Over dependence on foreign aid

Abuse of alcohol and other drugs

Lack of formal education hence no employment





Q1. State ways in which Christians can promote unity/peach in the society

By reporting criminals to the police

By being good example to others as peacekeepers

Praying for criminals

Building and counseling criminals

Teaching the society the importance of keeping peace

Condemning evil and evildoers

Q2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

They belong to the society and leadership affects them.

It is a God-given duty.

In order to choose righteous leaders who will encourage values/virtues

In order to help reduce bribery and corruption and other vices in the society



Q1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological discoveries?

They should keep in mind that God gave them high-level power of thinking.

Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.

They should not be used as an insult to God who created all things e.g. in things like plastic surgery, test tube babies etc.

Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.

Discoveries should not erode Christian values by increasing man’s trust in scientific and technological production.

Acknowledge God as the source of all truth including science

Should help man make moral decision and judgments e.g. effect of alcohol, smoking, etc.

Man should not be a slave to scientific discoveries instead he should control it.

Q2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?

It is against God’s plan of old age and death.

It is a sign of lack of appreciation to God’s work of creation.

It can lead to death if the operation fails.

It interferes with God’s image given at birth.

May be very expensive.

Emphasis on beauty and pleasing which are seen as idolatry

Certain diseases can be transmitted especially where tissues may be detached from a donor with an infectious disease.

Can bring about other operations like diseases.

Scientists use it to compete with God’s creation.

Leads to vices such as pride

It may lead to criminal activities by the victim due to different appearances.

It is a sign of lack of faith in God’s power of creation/healing.

It is against human dignity.

Q3. How have science and technology improved human life?

Modern methods of transport and communication have improved social interaction and faster movements.

It has improved efficiency at work where machines are used.

Has improved agricultural development hence increasing food production.

Irrigation and wealth forecasting have too increased in food production.

It has brought better health care through modern medical technology.

Human beings are now better placed in terms of security matters by use of radar, alarms and electrical fencing.

It has led to the creation of job opportunities through industrial development.

Formal education and training has equipped human beings with new skills for survival.

Trade has been promoted through the use of computers and the Internet.

Q4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society today?

Unemployment is acute in our society today because computers have taken over.

There is exploitation of workers by the employers because they want maximum profits.

It has caused pollution and air poisoning.

It has caused health hazards and accidents in factories, roads etc.

Machines have replaced human labor.

Families are separated due to employment whereby a mother lives in the rural with children while the father goes to town to work.

It has destroyed family relationships and replaced it with individualism

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KNEC Past Papers Revision Notes and Questions

KNEC Past Papers for Diploma in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Telecommunications Option

Download free KNEC Past papers for Diploma in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Telecommunications Option Option. We have KNEC past papers from 2010 to 2022 in all units for Electrical and electronic engineering diploma course in Kenya. Click on the links to access past papers for free in pdf format. Module I Entrepreneurship education Information communication […]

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CRE Notes and Past Papers


(i) The meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional African society In TAS, God is the source of life. Life is a rhythm which recycles itself. There are several dimensions of life i.e. Physical dimensions. Social dimension. Spiritual dimension. Environmental dimension. Physical dimension of life refers to the material state of human beings. […]

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CRE Notes and Past Papers

Selected Aspects in African Religious Heritage: African Concept of God, Spirits and Ancestors

African concept of God, Spirits and Ancestors a) God All African communities believe in a supreme being who is the origin and sustainer of all things. He is the creator of the universe and all that it contains. All Africans agree that nobody has ever seen God. Attributes of God as understood by African people […]

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