Q1. What is the meaning of Christian Ethics?
This is the study of human conduct or behavior.
It is about how Christians make choices in their daily lives guided by Christian principles and value.
Q2. What is the basis or sources or foundation of Christian Ethics?
The Bible/Biblical scripture (holy)
The natural law
Human experience and reason
The Christian community – preachers
Q3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life
(a) Critical thinking
(b) Creative thinking
(c) Decision – making
Q1. Explain seven Christian teachings on male/female relationships
Male/female were created as equal human beings: created in the image and likeness of God.
Male/female created for companionship, help/ partners/ complements each other.
Both are co-creator with God – done through procreation.
Union between both is consummated in marriage.
Relationship is based on love and respect/chastity.
Man/husband is the head of the family.
Each man to have his own wife and wife own husband.
Husband and wife should not deny each other conjugal rights.
Youth should abstain from sex until marriage.
Male/female body is temple of the Lord.
Short periods of abstinence are allowed among married people but with consent from each other.
Christians appreciate different roles of men and women in the church e.g. leadership in choir for women and men.
TOPIC THREE: HUMAN SEXUALITY
Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of human sexuality
Human sexuality is regarded as sacred and secret in many African communities.
The sacredness of sex is related to the power to transmit life – procreation.
It is taboo to discuss sex matters freely especially in the presence of children.
Grandparents who are free from any tying job teach sex education.
Young people are prepared for adult life in the context of age group e.g. games of sexual nature take place within an age group. The age group has control of each other and there is no sex whatsoever.
During initiation ceremonies, vigorous sex education is provided to the initiates.
They are taught about sex, its secrets and the mystery of manhood and womanhood.
Girls are expected to remain virgins
Rape offenders are severely punished.
Boys and girls are not allowed to mix.
Division of labor is on the basis of sex.
Roles of boys and girls are taught from childhood e.g. by copying their parents.
Q2. Explain Christian attitude towards human sexuality
Sex is sacred.
Man and woman are equal before God.
It is for procreation.
Man and woman are complimentary.
Both were created in the image of God.
They became one in marriage.
Sex is only allowed in marriage.
Virginity is valued.
Human beings have the ability to control sexual desires.
Chastity is a virtue.
All forms of irresponsible sexual behavior are condemned.
Q3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?
By practicing fornication/sex before marriage.
Adultery – sex outside marriage
By practicing bestiality
Rape/defilement of minors
Pornographic literature – using of technological devices in sex
Q4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya daily?
Lack of self-control among some men
Drugs and drug abuse
Permissiveness in society
Influence from the mass media
Mental illness – mad people
Erosion of the African culture/moral values
Devil worship/strange cults/false religion
Breakdown of religion values
Leniency of the Law/no punishment for criminal
Responsible Sexual Behavior
Q 5 what is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior?
Responsible sex is between male and female.
Sexual intercourse is allowed between married people.
Faithfulness is a virtue in this: Both partners must avoid adultery.
Responsible sexual behavior means exercising self-control.
It entails obedience to God’s commands hence a Christian has to shun forbidden sexual behavior e.g. fornication.
Body temple of the Lord, Our sexual relationships should uphold human dignity and respect for our bodies.
The Bible teaches that whatever we do with our bodies should be for the glory of God (1 Cor. 7:19-20).
Q6. List the difference types of irresponsible sexual behavior
- Homosexuality (lesbianism, sodomy)
Q7. Explain the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior
It defiles the body, which is the temple of God.
It is wickedness.
It is unholy and dirty before God.
It is spiritually unclean.
Those involved break the commandment of God.
It involves coveting – a sin.
Polygamy is condemned and considered irresponsible.
Q8. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behavior
It can lead to sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS).
Can lead to pregnancy and then abortion.
If married people are involved (adultery) divorce may occur.
Children suffer lack of parental care due to divorce as a result of adultery.
It may lead to street children.
It discourages young people from marrying.
It can lead to fights, quarrels, misunderstanding and friction.
Young people can chop out of school due to pregnancy/AIDS.
Can lead to single parenthood.
Withdrawing from family and society
Self-pity and loneliness
Psychological problems e.g. depression
Suicide and death
Aggressiveness and violence
LESSON THREE: THE FAMILY
Q5. State the different types of families
Single parent family
LESSON TWO: MARRIAGE
Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of marriage
Marriage is viewed as the focus of existence, i.e. the point where the three members of the community meet (i.e. living, departed and the unborn).
A rhythm of life through which everybody must participate
Marriage is a duty/a must/compulsory
Failure to marry means the person has rejected society and the society rejects him in turn.
Those who do not marry are considered as sub-human or lawbreakers.
Marriage is God ordained.
Young boys and girls are prepared for this sacred institution during initiation.
They are taught everything pertaining to marriage e.g. sex.
Children cement the marriage.
Q2. What is the importance of children in Traditional African Society?
They help their parents at old age.
Cement a marriage: One without children is considered incomplete.
Children (boys) provide security at home and the community.
They help in the perpetuation of the family and community name.
The departed are reborn through naming of children.
It is through children that (new) members meet and get to know each other. Young children are introduced to their relatives e.g. during initiation, marriage etc.
Children uphold the statue of parents.
Q3. What is the Christian teaching about marriage?
The church defines marriage as a covenant.
The Bible teaches that marriage is a divine institution.
Marriage is for procreation.
Marriage is for companionship.
It is for fulfillment of mutual love.
Marriage is a remedy against sin – fornication.
It should be monogamous.
Marriage should be permanent – no divorce.
Without or with children marriage is complete.
Sex outside marriage is forbidden.
Q4. What is the importance of courtship period in Traditional African Societies?
It helped in identifying a suitable marriage partner.
The two families involved established a firm relationship.
The boy and the girl had a chance to learn each other’s character.
It gives an opportunity to know whether the boy and girl are related.
Allows time for exchange of gifts between the two families, thus a firm relationship is established.
Time to negotiate the bride-wealth
Boy and girl are instructed about their duties and responsibilities.
Q5. Why are many people opting for celibacy instead of marriage today?
Celibacy is used to refer to the unmarried.
Many remain single today because of Christianity – to serve God.
Some are born Eunuchs – cannot father children.
Education – one may want to pursue education
Career demands – too demanding to allow one get time for a family.
Lack of guidance and counseling on marriage and family
Discouragement from failing marriages
Economic reasons – one may not have money for a big house, wedding and bringing up a family.
Poor health e.g. epilepsy
Economic independence – whereby young people feel satisfied when they have enough money
Parental interference – or whom their son should marry.
CHRISTIAN APPROACHES TO WORK
Q1. What is work?
Work means any human activity, be it manual, intellectual or both.
Q2. List any six reasons why people work
People work for self-satisfaction and fulfillment
For personal development
In order to acquire basic needs of life
To give life meaning, direction and dignity.
To provide service for the community.
To acquire wealth and status in the community.
In order to socialize and grow as a member of a community
To attain independence and stop depending on others.
In order to help others e.g. beggars.
Q3. Explain the Traditional African attitude towards work
Work was understood as a fundamental dimension of human existence here on earth.
It is through work that human beings were able to change, reorganize and restructure their society.
It was regarded as a recreational activity as through it, people built their houses, places of worship, produced art like sculpture and carving.
Work was highly valued and the dignity of work was taught early in life.
Each member had his own role to play e.g. men went out to hunt, herd etc accompanied with boys while mother did house work with the help of daughters.
Grandparents taught the youth how to behave and baby seated.
They believed work was God’s will and so they invoked God’s name through prayer, sacrifice to bless their work.
They had freedom over their work. No supervision. They decided when to work, when to rest but rest came after work.
Work was related to leisure, for people sang, danced and told stories as they worked.
Through work, many people exploited talents or learned e.g. building houses, song etc.
All were workers – work was compulsory.
Work brought people together – solidarity. This is because they shared work (communal work).
Q3. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in the modern society
Level of education – determine the type of work.
Availability of job opportunities
Work is personal unlike in Traditional African Communities where it was social.
Negative attitude to work, this is where some people hate manual work.
People work for personal gain and gratification
Work is a commodity to be sold to the highest bidder.
Q4. What are the rights of employers?
They have a right to a fair taxation in their business.
Get profits from their business.
Have association with other employers
Expect loyalty form their employees.
Receive from their employees work input as agreed upon on the employment contract.
Operate without being black mailed by trade unions.
Open business ventures without Government restrictions.
Q5. State the duties of employees
To carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision e.g. is punctual, present etc.
To respect and protect the property of the employer.
To resort to peaceful means of solving problems, and not destructive ways e.g. strike.
To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development
To respect the employer and fellow employees.
Q6. Why has child labor become common in Kenya?
Definition: – This is the employment of children on a full time basis.
Their labor is cheap.
They are not union sable and can therefore not fight for proper terms and conditions of service.
They can easily be lured and fired.
They do not have qualifications in any skill so as to negotiate for their terms.
They are looked at as a source of income by their parents or guardians.
Q7. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?
High population – There are too few job opportunities as compared to the many young people.
Hatred for manual work – many youth are looking for white-collar jobs despising the available “blue jobs.”
Bribery and corruption – In the job market whereby the rich are able to give while the poor though with good qualifications cannot secure a job.
Lack of skills and capital to start self-employment
Bad governance and poor economic policies from the government
SAPS – Structural Adjustment of Programmes i.e. Policy – not giving funds has led to poverty.
International policies of globalization that have affected the agric sector that has been the greatest employer in Kenya
Retrenchment of workers in the Civil Service and Private Sectors
Increase in crime that has aggravated insecurity in the country. This has discouraged local and international investors.
Q8. What can the Government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?
By creating more job opportunities
By starting more industries
Increase of workers by 10% after every 10 years
Encouraging self-employment whereby loans and space are given
Starting of a school curriculum (8.4.4.) – starting that gears students into blue-collar jobs.
Starting the District Funds for Rural Development = C.D.F.
Stopping rural –urban migration
By Africanisation of jobs – sending away foreign workers
CHRISTIAN APPROACHES TO LEISURE: AND THE USE AND ABUSE OF DRUGS
Q1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned
It leads to conflicts/quarrels within the family.
Misuse of family resources
May lead to addiction.
Leads to irresponsible sexual behaviors e.g. prostitution, adultery, and fornication
Could lead to loss of income.
May lead to irresponsibility, which leads to accidents such as motor accidents.
Q2. Write down 5 ways in which modern Christian use their leisure time
Organize/attend religious seminars.
Participate in church choir/concerts
Offers services to the aged
Read religious literature e.g. Bible
Keep the church and its environment clean.
Have fellowship with other Christians
Initiate self-help projects to assist the needy.
Provide guidance and counseling to the community.
Preach the word of God
Visit relatives and friends
Be with family members
Listen to Christian preaching/songs on radio
Q3. Give 5 ways in which drug abuse could affect a Christian family
Drains family resources
Fights in families may occur.
Leads to diseases
Leads to family break-ups/separation/divorce
It reduces one’s capacity to be productive in the family.
Results in making wrong decisions/judgment
Leads to denial of conjugal rights
Leads to loss of religious values
Leads to poor role models for children
Leads to crime/imprisonment
Q4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug abuse
Praying against being tempted.
Seeking guidance and counseling
Avoiding the company of those who misuse drugs
Reading literature on the correct use of drugs
Participating in activities that promote proper use of drugs/healthy activities
Q5. Why is leisure important in the life of Christians?
Gives one time to visit the sick/needy
For dedicating oneself to God/worshiping God
Provide an opportunity to fellowship with others
It allows one to develop the different talents given by God.
It gives one an opportunity to meet new friends/family.
One is able to read the word of God.
Provides an opportunity for one to preach/evangelize
Provides an opportunity to take care of the environment
Provides an opportunity to guide and counsel others and be guided
Provides time to rest to gain lost energy.
Q6. What factors have contributed to the misuse or leisure in Kenya today?
Too much money/wealth/availability of drugs/contraceptives
Lack of proper guidance/education on how to use leisure
Inability to make right decisions
Bad company/peer pressure
Watching/reading phonographic materials/negative media
Misunderstanding in families/frustrations
Inability to balance between different activities
Lack of role models
Q7. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya today
Poor role models
Influence of mass media
Availability of drugs/wealth
Lack of guidance and counseling
Moral decay/permissiveness in the society
Lack of knowledge/ignorance on use of drugs
CHRISTIAN RESPONSE TO ISSUES RELATED TO WEALTH, MONEY AND POVERTY
Q1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth
It is a blessing from God.
When wealth comes with responsibility.
Wealth can create a sense of false independence.
It should be acquired in just and honest way.
Wrong attitude to wealth leads to idolatry.
One should seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling.
It is wrong to discriminate others on basis of material possessions.
Christians should share whatever wealth they have.
Wealth is not supreme good.
Wealth gives people independence so that they do not beg.
Wealth may bring suffering and insecurity.
God is the owner of wealth and people should realize that they are only stewards.
Q2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth
Riches acquired through just and fair means are not condemned.
Even if wealth is acquired through just means it should not be idolized.
Failing to use wealth to glorify God
God is the source of all riches.
Wealth is acquired through obedience to God’s laws.
People ought to take care of their wealth not misuse.
Wealth should be equally distributed and not concentrated in the hands of a few.
Wealth should be used to develop the nation’s infrastructure.
Q3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today
Indulge in alcohol and drugs
Engaging in immoral practices e.g. prostitution
Gambling which might lead to loss of wealth
Unfair class competition among the wealthy
Using wealth to undermine others e.g. assassination
Using wealth to promote crime
Engaging in risky/dangerous sports or projects e.g. motor racing, wrestling.
Using wealth selfishly/lack of social concern
Using wealth to engage young people into immoral practices e.g. sex tourism.
Q4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability
One may indulge in alcohol/drug abuse at the expense of family needs.
Engage in immorality/extra-marital sexual relations/prostitution
Leads to misunderstanding on how to use wealth/invest
One uses wealth to engage in gambling.
Spoils children/encourages laziness.
One becomes obsessed with wealth and fails to care for the family love – has no time for the family.
Inheritance squabbles in case of death.
One fails to meet the basic needs for the family.
Q5. Give ways in which Kenyan Government is alleviating levels of poverty
Offering free education
Provision of C.D.F
Allocation of bursary to the needy
Creating and enabling environmental employment in formal and informal sectors (easy access to loans)
Providing market for agricultural products e.g. K.C.C, Cereal Board
Provision of low cost health services
Improving infrastructure e.g. roads, electricity
Providing youth fund through the Ministry of Youth Affairs.
Q6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today
Geographical factors e.g. adverse climate conditions.
Historical/colonialism and social factors e.g. poor family background
Political instability, which may lead to civil wars
Regional imbalance of natural resources
Low level of technology
Over dependence on foreign aid
Abuse of alcohol and other drugs
Lack of formal education hence no employment
CHRISTIAN APPROACHES TO LAW, ORDER AND JUSTICE
Q1. State ways in which Christians can promote unity/peach in the society
By reporting criminals to the police
By being good example to others as peacekeepers
Praying for criminals
Building and counseling criminals
Teaching the society the importance of keeping peace
Condemning evil and evildoers
Q2. Why should Christians take part in voting?
They belong to the society and leadership affects them.
It is a God-given duty.
In order to choose righteous leaders who will encourage values/virtues
In order to help reduce bribery and corruption and other vices in the society
CHRISTIAN APPROACHES TO SELECTED ISSUES RELATED TO MODERN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Q1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological discoveries?
They should keep in mind that God gave them high-level power of thinking.
Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.
They should not be used as an insult to God who created all things e.g. in things like plastic surgery, test tube babies etc.
Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.
Discoveries should not erode Christian values by increasing man’s trust in scientific and technological production.
Acknowledge God as the source of all truth including science
Should help man make moral decision and judgments e.g. effect of alcohol, smoking, etc.
Man should not be a slave to scientific discoveries instead he should control it.
Q2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?
It is against God’s plan of old age and death.
It is a sign of lack of appreciation to God’s work of creation.
It can lead to death if the operation fails.
It interferes with God’s image given at birth.
May be very expensive.
Emphasis on beauty and pleasing which are seen as idolatry
Certain diseases can be transmitted especially where tissues may be detached from a donor with an infectious disease.
Can bring about other operations like diseases.
Scientists use it to compete with God’s creation.
Leads to vices such as pride
It may lead to criminal activities by the victim due to different appearances.
It is a sign of lack of faith in God’s power of creation/healing.
It is against human dignity.
Q3. How have science and technology improved human life?
Modern methods of transport and communication have improved social interaction and faster movements.
It has improved efficiency at work where machines are used.
Has improved agricultural development hence increasing food production.
Irrigation and wealth forecasting have too increased in food production.
It has brought better health care through modern medical technology.
Human beings are now better placed in terms of security matters by use of radar, alarms and electrical fencing.
It has led to the creation of job opportunities through industrial development.
Formal education and training has equipped human beings with new skills for survival.
Trade has been promoted through the use of computers and the Internet.
Q4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society today?
Unemployment is acute in our society today because computers have taken over.
There is exploitation of workers by the employers because they want maximum profits.
It has caused pollution and air poisoning.
It has caused health hazards and accidents in factories, roads etc.
Machines have replaced human labor.
Families are separated due to employment whereby a mother lives in the rural with children while the father goes to town to work.